A dirty bomb is not an atomic bomb and is primarily used to disrupt and not destroy the human life purchase cheap kamagra chewable on line. Prompt detection of these devices (bomb or radioactive source) is essen- tial in order to take protective measures purchase kamagra chewable 100mg overnight delivery. The sources of radioactive materials are the hospitals cheap kamagra chewable uk, research facilities, and industrial and construction sites where radioactivity is used for various purposes (diagnosis and treatment at hospitals, research work, sterilizing equipment, and check of welding). Some of the highly radioactive sources are cobolt-60, strontium-90, cesium-137, and iridium-192 used in industrial Dirty Bombs 261 radiographic services. Many of these sources are mostly in metallic capsule form and the likelihood of dis- persion is minimal. However, they can be available in liquid and powder forms and potentially be used in dirty bombs, which can result in wide- spread contamination in the surrounding areas of explosion. Because one cannot see, taste, or feel radiations, excessive exposure can be received unknowingly by people in the vicinity of the area. Types of Radiation Exposure Radiation exposure from radiation accidents can be localized and/or whole- body type. The localized exposure may be caused by direct handling of or close proximity to highly radioactive sources. The local injury includes ery- thema, epilation, desquamation, ulceration, or blistering depending on the level of exposure. The treatment of choice for localized injuries is the use of antibiotic for infection and control of pain. The whole-body exposure causes various acute radiation syndromes that have been discussed earlier in this chapter. These syndromes include hemo- poietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular syndromes depending on the absorbed doses. Although cerebrovascular syndromes occur with 10,000 rem (100Sv), and result in death, the hemopoietic and gastrointestinal syn- dromes may be managed by bone marrow transplantation and other pro- phylactic treatment. Internal contamination can occur from the inges- tion of contaminated food and water, inhalation of the contaminated air, and diffusion through the skin or wounds. The principle of the treatment of internal contamination primarily involves dilution, displacement by non- radioactive material, complex formation, and blockage. Outer garments such as clothing and shoes can be contaminated by radioactivity from the explosion of a dirty bomb. Such contamination does not constitute a medical emergency and most of it can be removed by taking off these garments. Minor skin contamination can be eliminated by thor- ough washing with water and detergent, and a shower, if appropriate. Skin should not be abraded by a heavy brush, as this may facilitate internal absorption. Radiation Biology the external contamination, the patient must be ﬁrst managed for the con- dition before decontamination is carried out. Burns and wounds that are not contaminated should be ﬁrst covered and then decontamination of the other affected areas carried out. If you are outside and close to the explosion of a dirty bomb, cover the nose and mouth with a mask or cloth to reduce the risk of breathing in radioactive dust or smoke. If possible, immediately go inside the building that is not affected by the explosion and remove the outer layer of cloth- ing and shoes and seal them in a plastic bag, if available. If you are inside and close to the incident that has occurred outside, close all the doors and windows and do not leave the building. Local or federal authorities are likely to monitor the food and water in the area of explosion and inform the public of their suitability for consumption. Veriﬁcation Card for Radioactive Patients After the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York, numerous security measures have been adopted by the U. Congress has passed laws to establish the Department of Homeland Security to implement and monitor different aspects of these security measures. Security checks of airline passengers, background scrutiny of many visitors and suspected terrorist groups, and implementa- tion of the Patriot Act are some of the examples of these security actions Radiation Phobia 263 that are currently in place. In view of the concerns over the use of dirty bombs by miscreants, the Homeland Security has established checkpoints at various strategic locations such as airports, tunnels, mass transit, bridges, border crossing points, historical monuments, landmarks, and the like, to monitor the transport of dirty bombs containing radioactivity by using radi- ation detectors. One pitfall of this measure is that patients who received radioactive materials for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes may trigger the monitors while passing through these checkpoints and undergo undue hassle with authorities to provide proof that the radioactivity was really from medical uses. Many hospitals are adopting this policy and instruct the patients to carry the card for the period discussed below. A question arises as to how long the patient who has undergone nuclear studies should carry the card. It depends on the half-life of the radionuclide, types of radiations the radionuclide emits, and the biological elimination of the radiotracer from the body. Zuckier (2004) in a paper presented at The Radiological Society of North America annual meeting in Chicago sug- gested the following periods for different radionuclides for the patients to carry the card. One important factor is the graphic images of the devastating effects of the atomic bombs detonated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, and to a lesser extent, the images of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. The most noticeable effects of these incidents are death of living species and destruction of property at the site of the explosion and its immediate vicin- ity. Because of these images, many people associate radiation exposure with adverse health effects and death. These images are ﬁrmly embedded in the minds of the public causing perpetual fear of radiation. Another ﬂashpoint in creating radiation phobia in the public’s mind is the knowledge of assumption that any level of ionizing radiation is dan- 264 15. Psychological warfare with anecdotal rhetoric among the rival countries possessing nuclear weapons also creates fear of radiation among the public. Dreading effects of radiation on children and future offspring, and long-term damage to property are major concerns of the public. Furthermore, the media often play a role in exacerbating the problem of exposure from radiation accidents. Def- initely, nuclear detonation causes an instantaneous devastating effect on the population and property, and so can be reason for fear and panic. But the long-term effects of low doses of radiations, even from the fallout of the atomic bombs in Japan and Chernobyl accident, have been shown to be rel- atively small. The average individual lifetime dose from the Chernobyl fallout is estimated to be 0. By comparison, the worldwide average annual dose rate of natural radiation an individual receives on earth is 220mrem (2. In the United States, an individual receives an annual dose of about 300mrem (3mSv) including radon and a lifetime dose of 21rem (210mSv). These values are even ten times higher in some regions in India and Brazil, and yet incidence of excess cancer is not shown to be higher in these places. People face risk of cancer, injuries, and even death from day-to-day living activities, such as driving, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, eating food, and breathing air, in addition to hazardous job-related activities.
An imaging balance sheet and a urine tal purchase kamagra chewable 100 mg amex, Department of Medical Education buy generic kamagra chewable, Taichung order 100 mg kamagra chewable with visa, Taiwan, 4China culture generally precede this event. As in adults it is a valuable Medical University Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine tool in the therapeutic choice. We reported this preterm 1Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital Monastir, Physical Med- infant suffering from brain edema at birth and still diffcultly swal- icine and Rehabilitation, Monastir, Tunisia lowed until 40 weeks. The swallowing refex was much delay, and lips closure, rooting refex combined with dysfunction grade of jaw Introduction/Background: Diagnosis of a long term disability in a movement. Material and Methods: We performed Kinesio Taping child will bring on a major upheaval in the lives of the whole family methods for the baby. Under the theory which direction of tape involved and leads to a long-standing relationship with health care from origin to insertion will help facilitating the muscle, and inhi- personnel. Objective: To describe parent’s experiences with their bition function would be noted when the direction was insertion to child’s illness and to report the impact of the handicap on family origin. Material and Methods: It was an analytic prospective on length was given for taping on the orbicularis oris with anchor survey. The mean nica 1B, Tlalnepantla- Estado de Mexico, Mexico, 3Centro de Re- age of parents was 42 years. There are 19 children with cerebral habilitacion Infantil Teleton, Clinica 5, Tlalnepantla- Estado de palsy. The cognitive and motor disability was noted on 58% of Mexico, Mexico, 4Centro de Rehabilitacion Infantil Teleton, Odon- cases. Material and Methods: Quasi-experimental clinical pact on the family, including emotional responses such as anxiety, trial. The sample was selected according to inclusion and exclusion sorrow and powerlessness. Initially facial symmetry, the presence of muscular pain in disability dominates the lives of the whole family, in addition to masseter and temporal muscles, temporomandibular joint evalua- stressors such as increased responsibility and load. The muscle-tendon length was University Mohammed First- Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy- estimated using the Lower Limb Extremity Model-2010 and inverse Oujda, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oujda, Morocco kinematics analysis by OpenSim was conducted. Demographic data, the course or demonstrated a strong relationship between R1 angle and length of of pregnancy and childbirth, data on disability and the medical hamstring or sagittal knee angle on kinematics rather than R2 angle. In case of missing informa- R1 angle which means muscle reaction to passive fast stretch may tion, the family was contacted by telephone to complete the data. The population of the study was divided into 3 groups This study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei Uni- according to their diagnosis: Orthopedic Disabilities 3. Conclusion: Taking early and adequate care for pregnant women, childbirth, neonatal infections are suffering and D. Fourtassi2 disable friendly toilet facilities while the remaining 10% had limited 1 wheelchair accessible facility. Forty percent of the schools didn’t Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy- University Mohammed ben- have adequate access to the classrooms and academic programs, an- abdellah Fez, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Fez, Moroc- other 40% were having full accessibility and the rest had a mixture co, 2University Mohammed I- Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy- of accessibility to classrooms and academic programs. It is mainly based on brain mobility and access issues that can lead to interventions and bring plasticity, learned non-use and inter-hemispheric inhibition. An analytical and functional assessment of the affected limb was performed before 1Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Rehabilitation Unit- Depart- and after the intensive rehabilitation course. Results: Signifcant ana- ment of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Cheras, Malaysia, 2Uni- lytical performance improvements, especially in muscle strength was versity Kuala Lumpur- Malaysia, Institute of Medical Sciences observed in each of the 3 patients with an average gain of 0. A marked improvement in functional performance was observed, including the strategy of Introduction/Background: The higher the lesion of the spina bifda, small objects grasp, the speed to perform the manual dexterity test the greater the complications (medical as well as physical) for the with an average gain of 14 s for all three children. None of the of the transport phase objectifed an average gain of 4 cm in height, study has been done so far in our centre looking into the clinical pres- and an average gain of 3. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical presenta- in our study and those reported in the literature clearly point to the tions and functional independence in children with spina bifda. Neurogenic bladder was the 1Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Rehabilitation Unit- Depart- most common presentation (70%), followed by Neurogenic bowel ment of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Cheras, Malaysia, 2- Fac- (57%), tethered cord syndrome (40%), hydrocephalus (30%), pres- ulty of Medicine- University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Rehabilitation sure ulcers (20%) and scoliosis (18%). Most of the children (n=27) Unit -Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kuala Lum- can walk long distance without problems (48%), 21 of them can even pur, Malaysia, 3University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, run and exercise independently. Eighty six percent of them were inde- Occupational therapy Unit- Rehabilitation Medical Services De- pendent in bathing. Experience of low energy level was noted in more partment, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 4Faculty of Medicine- Univer- than 50% of the children. Conclusion: These data will be very useful sity Malaya, Department of Pathology-, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, for establishing the national database of Spina Bifda in our coun- 5Faculty of Medicine- University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Depart- try and help to better understand the spina bifda associated medical ment of Orthopedics and Traumatology-, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia complications and physical needs of the children with spina bifda. Government sectors will be able to distribute the funding when they Introduction/Background: In developing countries, the need of spe- know exactly the patient’s needs. Material and Methods: This study is a cross sectional interview 1 Chennai, India based pilot study. Parents and patients with Spina bifda who were following up at the rehabilitation clinic, tertiary hospital, Malaysia Introduction/Background: Cerebral palsy is a very common pae- were interviewed between the period of Feb 2013–Feb 2014 by us- diatric disability in India. By the Popovic4 time they bring the child for rehabilitation they could not fnd re- 1Child and Youth Health Care Institute of Vojvodina, Developmen- sources. Keeping this tal Neurology and Epileptology, Novi Sad, Serbia, 2Nursary School in mind, Ambattur Rotary Charitable trust started Bal Sanjeevani “Happy Childhood”, “Cika Jova”, Novi Sad, Serbia, 3University Cerebral Play Medical Rehabilitation Centre in Ambattur Rotary of Novi Sad- School of Medicine, Department for Physical and Hospital in Chennai in India on Dec 2006. While plan- ning rehabilitation taking the concern of the mother is important to Introduction/Background: The decision to withdraw anti-epileptic reduce the drop outs and increase the satisfaction of the mothers. Material and Methods: of this study was to fnd out the children with cerebral palsy par- Till now 811 children had been treated there of which 58 percent ents and family’s attitudes towards the fear of having anti-epileptic are male and 42 percent are female children. Material and (90%) of the mother’s main concern was motor dysfunction of their Methods: This research was carried out at the Institute for Child children. So an intensive program to improve motor function in and Youth Health care of Vojvodina in Novi Sad. The children had intensive program to re- which lasted from 2004 to 2014, a face-to-face interview about fear duce spasticity, improve posture and augment existing motor func- of having the anti-epileptic therapy withdrawn was done within the tions. The modalities used are apart from regular exercise therapy, examination of patients having epilepsy and patient having epilepsy therasuits, bungees, aquatherapy, functional electrical stimulation, and cerebral palsy. The study population included 100 parents from surface emg bio feedback, balance boards and virtual reality video both group. Conclusion: Understanding maternal than parents of children having epilepsy without any other health concern is important to reduce the drop outs and increase the satis- problem. This helps the mother and family to actively than the one in the general population. Conclusion: It is important participate in rehabilitation program in the centre and at home. Material and Introduction/Background: Cerebral palsy is the most common Methods: This is a case-control study. Generally they are not able to describe the epileptic events pared between the two groups.
But buy 100 mg kamagra chewable free shipping, looking at the sampling distribution purchase kamagra chewable 100mg without a prescription, we see that our differ- ence of 13 hardly ever occurs when the samples represent no difference order discount kamagra chewable on line. Therefore, we reject H0 and accept the Ha that we are representing a difference between s that is not zero. Here, the mean for hypnosis (23) is larger than the mean for no hypnosis (20), so we can conclude that increasing the amount of hypnosis leads to significantly higher recall scores. If tobt was not beyond tcrit, we would not reject H0, and we would have no evidence for or against a relationship between hypnosis and recall. As in the pre- vious chapter, we maximize power here by designing the study to (1) maximize the size of the difference between the means, (2) minimize the variability of scores within each condition, and (3) maximize the size of N. These steps will maximize the size of tobt relative to tcrit so that we are unlikely to miss the relationship if it really exists. Because we did find a significant result, we describe and interpret the relationship. First, from our sample means, we expect the for no hypnosis to be around 20 and the for hypnosis to be around 23. To more precisely describe these s, we could com- pute a confidence interval for each. To do so, we would use the formula for a confi- dence interval in the previous chapter, looking at only one condition at a time, using only one s2 and X, and computing a new standard error and t. Then we’d know the X crit range of values of likely to be represented by each of our means. However, another way to describe the populations represented by our samples is to create a confidence interval for the difference between the s. Confidence Interval for the Difference between Two s Above we found a difference of 13 between our sample means, so if we could exam- ine the corresponding 1 and 2, we’d expect their difference would be around 13. To more precisely define “around,” we can compute a confidence interval for this difference. We will compute the largest and smallest difference between s that our difference between sample means is likely to represent. Then we will have a range of The Independent-Samples t-Test 269 differences between the population s that our difference between Xs may represent. The confidence interval for the difference between two s describes a range of dif- ferences between two s, one of which is likely to be represented by the difference between our two sample means. The formula for the confidence interval for the difference between two s is 1sX 2X 212tcrit2 1 1X1 2 X22 # 1 2 2 # 1sX 2X 211tcrit2 1 1X1 2 X22 1 2 1 2 Here, 1 2 2 stands for the unknown difference we are estimating. The tcrit is the two- tailed value found for the appropriate at df 5 1n1 2 12 1 1n2 2 12. In essence, if someone asked us how big a difference hyp- nosis makes for everyone in the population when recalling information in our study, we’d be 95% confident that the difference is, on average, between about. Performing One-Tailed Tests with Independent Samples As usual, we perform a one-tailed test whenever we predict the specific direction in which the dependent scores will change. Thus, we would have performed a one-tailed test if we had predicted that hypnosis would increase recall scores. Everything dis- cussed previously applies here, but to prevent confusion, we’ll use the subscript h for hypnosis and n for no hypnosis. If we expect a positive difference, it is in the right-hand tail of the sampling distribution, so tcrit is positive. If we predict a negative differ- ence, it is in the left-hand tail and tcrit is negative. Compute tobt as we did previously, but be sure to subtract the Xs in the same way as in Ha. Compare tobt to tcrit: If tobt is beyond tcrit, the results are significant; describe the relationship. If tobt is not beyond tcrit, the results are not significant; make no conclusion about the relationship. Compute the confidence interval: Describe the represented by each condition and/or the difference between the s. Subtracting cramming from no cramming, what dence interval for the difference between the s is are H0 and Ha? The related-samples t-test is the parametric procedure used with two related samples. Related samples occur when we pair each score in one sample with a particular score in the other sam- ple. Researchers create related samples to have more equivalent and thus more compa- rable samples. In a matched-samples design, we match each participant in one condition with a participant in the other condition. For example, say that we want to measure how well people shoot baskets when using either a standard basketball or a new type of ball (one with handles). If, however, by luck, one condition contained taller people than the other, then differences in basket shooting could be due to the differences in height instead of the different balls. We do this by matching pairs of people who are the same height and assigning a member of the pair to each condition. Thus, if two participants are 6 feet tall, one will be assigned to each condition. Likewise, a 4-foot person in one condition is matched with a 4-footer in the other condition, and so on. This will pro- duce two samples that, overall, are equivalent in height, so any differences in basket shooting between them cannot be due to differences in height. Likewise, we might match participants using age, or physical ability, or we might use naturally occurring pairs such as roommates or identical twins. The other, more common, way of producing related samples is called repeated meas- ures. In a repeated-measures design, each participant is tested under all conditions of the independent variable. For example, we might first test people when they use the standard basketball and then measure the same people again when they use the new ball. In Chapter 9, two events were dependent when the probability of one is influenced by the occurrence of the other. Related samples are dependent because the probability that a score in a pair is a particular value is influenced by the paired score. For exam- ple, if I make zero baskets in one condition, I’ll probably make close to zero in the other condition. This is not the case with independent samples: In the hypnosis study, whether someone scores 0 in the no-hypnosis condition will not influence the probabil- ity of anyone scoring 0 in the hypnosis condition. We cannot use the independent-samples t-test in such situations because its sampling distribution describes the probability of differences between means from independent samples.
Nondeclarative memory loss refers to loss of skills order genuine kamagra chewable, habits generic 100mg kamagra chewable fast delivery, or learned behaviors that can be expressed without an awareness of what was learned purchase kamagra chewable with american express. Procedural memory is a type of nondeclarative memory and may involve motor, perceptual, or cognitive processes. Examples of nondeclarative procedural mem- ory include remembering how to tie one’s shoes (motor), responding to the tea kettle whistling on the stove (perceptual), or increasing ability to complete a puzzle (cognitive). Nondeclarative memory involves several brain areas, including the amygdala, basal gan- I. Declarative memory refers to the conscious memory for facts and events and is divided into two categories: semantic memory and episodic memory. Semantic memory refers to general knowledge about the world without speciﬁ- cally recalling how or when the information was learned. An example of semantic mem- ory is the recollection that a wristwatch is an instrument for keeping time. Vocabulary and the knowledge of associations between verbal concepts comprise a large portion of semantic memory. Examples of episodic memory include ability to recall the birthday of a spouse, to recog- nize a photo from one’s wedding, or recall the events at one’s high school graduation. The areas of the brain involved in declarative memory include the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, mamillary bodies, and thalamus. Inguinal nodes <2 cm are common in the population at large and need no further work up provided that there is no other evidence of disseminated infection or tumor, and that the nodes have qualities that do not suggest tumor (not hard or matted). A practical approach would be to measure the nodes or even photograph them if visible, and follow them serially over time. Occasionally, inguinal lymph nodes can be associated with sexually transmitted dis- eases. However, these are usually ipsilateral and tender, and evaluation for this would in- clude bimanual examination and appropriate cultures, not necessarily pelvic ultrasound. Bone marrow biopsy would be indicated only if a diagnosis of lymphoma is made ﬁrst. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy should always be considered abnormal, particularly when documented on the left side. A thorough investigation for cancer, particularly with a primary gas- trointestinal source, is necessary. Generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly may be found in au- toimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus or mixed connective tissue disease. Tender adenopathy of the cervical anterior chain is nearly always associated with infection of the head and neck, most commonly a viral upper respiratory infection. It generally causes only mild enlargement of the spleen as expanded varices provide some decompression for elevated portal pressures. Myeloﬁbrosis necessi- tates extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen, liver, and even other sites such as the peritoneum, leading to massive splenomegaly due to myeloid hyperproduction. Autoim- mune hemolytic anemia requires the spleen to dispose of massive amounts of damaged red blood cells, leading to reticuloendothelial hyperplasia and frequently an extremely large spleen. Chronic myelogenous leukemia and other leukemias/lymphomas can lead to massive splenomegaly due to inﬁltration with an abnormal clone of cells. If a patient with cirrhosis or right-heart failure has massive splenomegaly, a cause other than passive congestion should be considered. This usually occurs because of surgical splenectomy but is also possible when there is diffuse inﬁltration of the spleen with ma- lignant cells. Hemolytic anemia can have various peripheral smear ﬁndings depending on the etiology of the hemolysis. Spherocytes and bite cells are an example of damaged red cells that might appear due to autoimmune hemolytic anemia and oxidative damage, respectively. However, in these condi- tions, damaged red cells are still cleared effectively by the spleen. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus inﬂuenzae and sometime gram-negative enteric organisms are most frequently isolated. The highest risk of sepsis occurs in patients under 20 because the spleen is responsible for ﬁrst-pass immunity and younger patients are more likely to have primary exposure to implicated organisms. The risk is highest during the ﬁrst 3 years after splenectomy and persists at a lower rate until death. This patient has evidence of atherosclerosis, which is the most common organic cause of erectile dysfunction in males. Medications account for 25% of cases of erectile dysfunction: diuretics, beta blockers and other antihypertensives being common culprits. Psychogenic erectile dysfunction can cause or be caused by organic erectile dysfunction. We are given no indication that this patient is experiencing a relationship con- ﬂict or that he has developed performance anxiety. Sildena- ﬁl, tadalaﬁl, and vardenaﬁl are the only approved and effective agents for erectile dysfunc- tion due to psychogenic, diabetic, or vasculogenic causes or resulting from postradical prostatectomy and spinal cord injury. If the patient were to fail to respond to oral agents, intraurethral vasoactive substances are a reasonable next choice. Implantation of a penile prosthesis would be of consideration if intraurethral or intracavernosal injections failed. Sex therapy will not address the or- ganic dysfunction that this patient has, as evidenced by the lack of nocturnal erections. The female sexual response requires the presence of estrogens and possibly an- drogens. In the elderly, weight loss is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Studies in the elderly have found mortality rates of 10–15%/year in patients with signiﬁcant unintentional weight loss. It is important to conﬁrm the weight loss and the duration of time over which it occurred. The causes of weight loss are protean and usually become apparent after a careful evaluation and directed testing. A thorough review of systems should be performed including constitutional, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and psychiatric. The physical examination must include an examination of the skin, oropharynx, thyroid gland, lymphatic system, abdomen, rectum, prostate, neurologic system, and pelvis. A rea- sonable laboratory approach would include an initial phase of testing including the tests outlined in this scenario. In the absence of signs or symptoms, close follow-up rather than undirected testing is appropriate. Given that this is an investigational drug, it is improbable that patients in this study have taken this drug before. Al- though not spread person to person, inhalational anthrax has a high mortality, a low in- fective dose (ﬁve spores), and may be spread widely with aerosols after bioengineering.
However purchase kamagra chewable from india, say that instead we restricted the range of X when measuring the data purchase cheap kamagra chewable online, giving us only the scatter- plot located between the lines labeled A and B in Figure 7 discount kamagra chewable 100mg on-line. Now, we are seeing virtually the same batch of Y scores as these few X scores increase. Therefore, the correlation coefficient from Scatterplot showing these data will be very close to 0, so we will conclude that there is a very weak—if restriction of range in any—linear relationship here. This would be wrong, however, because without us X scores restricting the range, we would have seen that nature actually produces a much stronger relationship. Generally, restriction of range occurs when researchers are too selective when obtaining participants. Thus, if you study the relationship between participants’ high school grades and their subsequent salaries, don’t restrict the range of grades by testing only honor students: Measure all students to get the entire range of grades. Or, if you’re correlating personality types with degree of emotional problems, don’t study only college students. People with severe emotional problems tend not to be in college, so you won’t have their scores. Likewise, any task you give participants should not be too easy (because then everyone scores in a narrow range of very high scores), nor should the task be too difficult (because then everyone obtains virtually the same low score). In all cases, the goal is to allow a wide range of scores to occur on both variables so that you have a complete descrip- tion of the relationship. Later we’ll also see other coeffi- cients that are designed for other types of scores, and you may find additional, ad- vanced coefficients in published research. However, all coefficients are interpreted in the same ways that we have discussed: the coefficient will have an absolute value between 0 and 1, with 0 indicating no relationship and 1 indicating a perfectly con- sistent relationship. In real research, however, a correlation coefficient near ;1 simply does not occur. Recall from Chapter 2 that individual differences and extraneous environmental vari- ables produce inconsistency in behaviors, which results in inconsistent relationships. Chapter Summary 155 Therefore, adjust your expectations: Most research produces coefficients with absolute values in the neighborhood of only. It is the one number that allows you to envision and summarize the important information in a scatterplot. For example, in our study on nerv- ousness and the amount of coffee consumed, say that I tell you that the r in the study equals. Also, you know that it is a rather consistent relationship so there are similar Y scores paired with an X, producing a narrow, elliptical scatterplot that hugs the regression line. And, you know that coffee consumption is a reasonably good predictor of nervousness so, given some- one’s coffee score, you’ll have considerable accuracy in predicting his or her nervousness score. Therefore, as you’ll see in later chapters, even when you conduct an experiment, always think “correlation co- efficient” to describe the strength and type of relationship you’ve observed. A scatterplot is a graph that shows the location of each pair of X–Y scores in the data. An outlier is a data point that lies outside of the general pattern in the scatterplot. The regression line summarizes a relationship by passing through the center of the scatterplot. In a linear relationship, as the X scores increase, the Y scores tend to change in only one direction. In a positive linear relationship, as the X scores increase, the Y scores tend to increase. In a negative linear relationship, as the X scores increase, the Y scores tend to decrease. In a nonlinear, or curvilinear, relationship, as the X scores increase, the Y scores do not only increase or only decrease. Circular or elliptical scatterplots that produce horizontal regression lines indicate no relationship. Scatterplots with regression lines sloping up as X increases indi- cate a positive linear relationship. Scatterplots with regression lines sloping down as X increases indicate a negative linear relationship. A correlation coefficient describes the type of relationship (the direction Y scores change) and the strength of the relationship (the extent to which one value of Y is consistently paired with one value of X). A smaller absolute value of the correlation coefficient indicates a weaker, less consistent relationship, with greater variability in Y scores at each X, greater vertical spread in the scatterplot, and less accuracy in predicting Y scores based on correlated scores. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) describes the type (either positive or nega- tive) and the strength of the linear relationship between two interval and/or ratio variables. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (rS) describes the type and strength of the linear relationship between two ordinal variables. The restriction of range problem occurs when the range of scores from one or both variables is limited. Then the correlation coefficient underestimates the strength of the relationship that would be found if the range were not restricted. Because a stronger relationship allows for greater accuracy in predicting Y scores, researchers say the X variable is a better predictor of Y scores, allowing us to ac- count for more variance in Y. What is the difference between an experiment and a correlational study in terms of how the researcher (a) collects the data? What are the two reasons why you can’t conclude you have demonstrated a causal relationship based on correlational research? What does a correlation coefficient equal to 0 indicate about the four characteris- tics in question 8? For each of the following, indicate whether it is a positive linear, negative linear, or nonlinear relationship: (a) Quality of performance 1Y2 increases with increased arousal 1X2 up to an optimal level; then quality of performance decreases with increased arousal. Poindexter sees the data in question 12d and concludes, “We should stop people from moving into bear country so that we can preserve our bear population. For each of the following, give the symbol for the correlation coefficient you should compute. He concludes that the time spent taking a test forms a stronger relationship with the number of errors than does the amount of study time. In question 15, (a) which variable is a better predictor of test errors and how do you know this? The X variable is the number of errors on a math test, and the Y variable is the person’s level of satisfaction with his/her performance. You want to know if a nurse’s absences from work in one month 1Y2 can be predicted by knowing her score on a test of psychological “burnout” 1X2. In the following data, the X scores reflect participants’ rankings in a freshman class, and the Y scores reflect their rankings in a sophomore class. He deter- mines each monkey’s relative position in the dominance hierarchy of the group (1 being most dominant) and also notes each monkey’s relative weight (1 being the lightest). What is the relationship between dominance rankings and weight rankings in these data?
Until prevention can eliminate cancer order 100 mg kamagra chewable with mastercard, any improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer are desirable goals buy kamagra chewable 100mg with mastercard. The clinical application of radiolabelled antibodies is a multidisciplinary effort by specialized scientists to utilize the extreme specificity of the antibodies in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms purchase 100mg kamagra chewable mastercard. Using radioactive labelled antibodies, efforts are being made to selectively concentrate within the tumour either small quantities of radioactivity for localization by non-invasive imag ing (scintigraphy), or sufficiently large amounts of radioactivity for treatment of the tumour . Recently, a new method using radiolabelled immunoglobulins (IgG) was introduced for the early detection of infection . The breakdown of the patients was as follows: 17 patients with colorectal carcinoma, 15 patients with malignant melanoma and 40 patients with infection. All patients entered into the study after appropriate clinical staging with conventional radiographic studies, history, physical examination and selected labora tory studies. The acquired images were viewed in analog and digital formats for interpreta tion read by consensus by two independent nuclear medicine physicians. If both readers did not agree, a third nuclear medicine physician cast the deciding ‘vote’. Following the study, the patients were referred back to their primary physician for follow-up. The same lesion (arrows) in the left pelvis is shown in coronal (left upper), sagittal (right upper) and transverse (left lower) sections. The lesion appears clearer using this 3-D display and its location and dimensions are better defined. The overall detection rate of primary tumoral or infection sites, local recur rences and metastatic sites was 117/135 (86%). In 26 of 135 (19%) lesions studied by the planar method, false negative results were caused mainly by disturbances from organs with physiologically high count rates, such as the urinary bladder, kidney, liver, stomach and cardiac blood pool. However, in accordance with the results of some other investigators, it can to some extent lower the specificity of diagnosis [5-7]. The total detection rate of 86% achieved by our study is in close correspon dence with that of Delaloy et al. False positive results were probably caused by normal tissue expressing the antigen. Therapy management in patients with recurrent malignant lymphoma requires func tional methods to differentiate between residual soft tissue masses. Dynamic acquisitions were performed and standardized uptake values were calculated from the regions of interest data. Second line treatment is based on high dose chemotherapy, followed by blood stem cell support. Therefore, these patients were considered to have recurrent disease and were referred to the Medical Clinic, University of Heidelberg, for possible second line chemotherapy. The classifi cation was based on both clinical follow-up and restaging data obtained three months after onset of therapy. Patients were scheduled for blood stem cell support if they fulfilled the clinical standard criteria for this second line therapy. We used contiguous 8 mm thick cross-sections and oral contrast material if required. The images were visually evalu ated and the tracer uptake in the target area was compared with the accumulation in the normal soft tissue. The system provides for the acquisition of three slices simultaneously, two primary sections and one cross-section. The evaluation of spatial linearity showed that the maximum displacement from the ideal source position was less than 0. Transmission scans with more than 10 million counts per section were obtained with a rotating pin source prior to the first radionuclide appli cation in order to obtain cross-sections for the attenuation correction of the acquired emission tomographic images. Further data acquisition was per formed for 10 min (emission) and 5 min (transmission) at different positions identi fied by skin markings in order to study a larger volume. Regions of interest were placed over the lesions as well as the aorta, and time activity data were calculated from each image series for further quantitative evaluation. The uptake was relatively low and an overlap with the blood background activity (maximum 2. However, the uptake in the malignant lesions exceeded the blood background value in 90. This may raise diagnostic problems and result in false negative results if the lesions are not localized within low uptake areas like fatty tissue. The problem of differentiating tumour lesions from inflam matory masses is discussed in the literature [7-12]. The authors found that a maximum of 29% of the glucose utilization was derived from non-tumour tissue in the tumour. The expression of the mdrl gene modulates the transport of various substances like daunorubicine, doxorubicine, taxol and vinblastine [19-21]. Therefore, the accumulation of this compound is likely to be inversely correlated to the resistance of tumour cells against chemotherapeutic drugs. The iteratively reconstructed cross-sections were evaluated using the regions of interest technique and time activity curves were calculated for the lesions, the normal liver parenchyma and the aorta. Late images 120 min after onset of the infusion were used to evaluate the cytostatically active fraction. In selected patients double tracer studies were performed using systemic as well as regional tracer appli cations. Depending on both the selection process and the response criteria used, the reported response rates have varied from 8 to 82% . Based on a literature survey, Kemeny reported that the average response rate for liver métastasés was 23 %. Shani and Wolf  showed in an animal study that drug responsive tumours had a 20:1 tumour to blood ratio 12 h post-injection, while the drug resistant tumours had only a 4:1 ratio. The system provides for the acquisition of three slices simultaneously, two primary sections and one cross-section. The last images of the series were used for the quantification of the non-metabolized tracer uptake. Regions of interest were placed over the métastasés and the normal liver parenchyma. Only those métastasés visible in at least two consecutive slices were included in the final evaluation. Perfusion of the target area is a major parameter for the chemotherapy of liver métastasés. All patients were scheduled for chemotherapy using surgically implanted catheters and subcu taneous port systems. Repeated flow studies with 150 labelled water were carried out after intravenous, intra-arterial (hepatic artery), intraportal and intralienal tracer injection (30-100 mCi).
Para evitarlo generic 100mg kamagra chewable visa, se desarrolló en el Centro de Investigaciones Clínicas un “ software” para la automatización del procesamiento de los estudios tomográficos renales que fuera lo más independiente posible del observador cheap kamagra chewable 100mg without a prescription. Este se basa en un algoritmo que realiza una serie de reorientaciones de cada riñón por separado que culminan en la obtención de una imagen final discount 100mg kamagra chewable overnight delivery, facilitando así el análisis de cada caso con mayor objetividad y comodidad. De esta forma se logra una estandarización del procedimiento que permite realizar estudios evolu tivos de los pacientes con mayor rigor. En la evaluación de este tipo de lesiones generalmente se pueden determinar dos tipos de defectos: los de tipo inflamatorio, que se reflejan en las imágenes como una o varias zonas de hipofijación sin alteración del contorno externo, y los de tipo cicatriciales, que provocan deformaciones en el parénquima renal de carácter irreversible. Debido a que cada tipo de lesión lleva aparejado un pronóstico diferente, es importante determinar lo más exactamente posible la presencia de uno u otro tipo de defecto. Algunos autores han trabajado en el análisis de los cortes tomográficos teniendo en cuenta la reorientación de cada riñón . Debido a todo lo anterior, nos dimos a la tarea de obtener un algoritmo que reorientara de forma automática las imágenes de cada unidad renal por separado hasta una posición estándar a partir de la cual se pudiesen analizar los defectos existentes y posteriormente crear una imagen plana que reuniera la información con tenida en los diferentes cortes tomográficos. E tapas del algoritm o El procedimiento se realizó para cada riñón por separado —primero se procesaba el izquierdo y después el derecho— y está basado en la siguiente secuencia de pasos: En la primera parte, se creó una máscara tridimensional que envuelve al riñón y permite trabajar con los valores de éste. Los imágenes se centraron tomando en cuenta el centro geométrico de todo el volumen del órgano en cuestión. Posterior mente se pasó a analizar la inclinación inherente al eje longitudinal de la unidad renal en estudio; se tomaron los valores del contorno de las imágenes y, a partir de una regresión por el método de mínimos cuadrados, se ajustaron éstos a una recta que coincide con el eje antes mencionado; se calcularon los ángulos de inclinación de la recta con respecto a la vertical para posteriormente rotar todo el volumen a una inclinación estándar. Después se analizaron los cortes de la zona media del riñón para el cálculo del ángulo en que se encuentra ubicada la pelvis renal, donde se regis traron los menores valores de captación; finalmente se rotó el riñón hasta coincidir con el ángulo calculado. En una segunda etapa, se realizaron búsquedas radiales siguiendo las manecillas del reloj a partir de la localización de la pelvis renal. En estas búsquedas se localizó el máximo de captación en cada dirección hasta un radio medio que fue determinado por condiciones de isocontorno. Cada valor así obtenido fue recogién dose teniendo en cuenta el número de corte en una matriz de 64 X 64, correpon- diendo cada columna a un ángulo determinado y cada fila a un número de corte específico. De esta forma se obtuvo una imagen desenvuelta cilindrica de la super ficie del riñón (Fig. En este diagrama se representa la localización de las diferentes zonas renales en la imagen desenvuelta. Si en lugar de realizar la búsqueda de los máximos de forma radial se realiza de forma lineal, a partir de un piano central que pase por el medio de la pelvis renal, se obtiene otro tipo de imagen que correspondería a “ abrir” el riñón por la mitad o, lo que es lo mismo, obtener una imagen desenvuelta “ lineal” de la superficie renal. Después de obtener ambas imágenes para el riñón izquierdo, se procedió a aplicar la misma secuencia de pasos al riñón contralateral. Al finalizar todo el procesamiento, se muestran en pantalla las cuatro imágenes obtenidas para su evalua ción (dos para cada unidad renal). La adquisición de las imágenes planas se realizó en formato de 128 X 128 pixeles con 1 min de duración y aproxima damente 300 x 103 cuentas en cada imagen, en proyecciones posterior y oblicuas posteriores a 45°. La adquisición de las imágenes tomográficas se hizo en una matriz de 128 x 128 pixeles a 10 s por vista, con un total de 128 proyecciones. Las imágenes fueron reconstruidas por el método de la retroproyección filtrada con un filtro Butterworth 4/16 (orden: 4, frecuencia de corte: 0,25 ciclos/pixel). De esta reconstrucción se obtuvieron los cortes axiales, coronales y sagitales sobre los que aplicamos el algoritmo. Finalmente, se analizó la concordancia entre las imágenes planas y las tomográficas post-procesamiento teniendo en cuenta su clasificación por defectos de hipofijación o de contorno. Esta se hace marcada al separar las lesiones por su tipo: 67,7% en el caso de las hipofijaciones y solo un 26,2% para las de contorno. En muchos casos en que se observaba hipofijación en las imágenes planas, y hasta en las tomográficas sin reorientar (Fig. En ambos casos se observa una zona de hipofijación en el polo superior del riñón izquierdo. Esta situación se acentúa hacia los polos, debido fundamentalmente a que la masa parenquimatosa en ellos es menor, o a la presencia de defectos posi- cionales o de rotación no apreciables en las vistas planas, o a la compensación de los mismos por la superposición de zonas adyacentes. En el caso de las otras imágenes desenvueltas, hay pequeños defectos, sobre todo en los polos, que quedan enmascarados al realizar las búsquedas desde el plano central, por lo que la concordancia fue algo menor (r = 0,90). Es claramente perceptible la ausencia de capta ción correspondiente a la zona del polo superior del riñón izquierdo. Seventy-five patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease were investigated. Coronary angiography was performed and lesions >50% stenosis were consid ered significant; a >75% stenosis criterion was also used for comparison. Each scintigram was given a scintigraphic score and true positive and false positive fractions were calculated at varying scintigraphic score decision thresholds using coronary arteriography as the ‘gold’ standard. In planar imaging, 2-D projections are obtained of the 3-D myocardial distribution of the radiopharma ceutical agent. Its main drawbacks are tissue attenuation, segmental overlap and poor regional separation. However, it is more susceptible to artefacts and quality control requires meticulous attention. In contrast, 99Tcm agents have a higher photon energy, ideal for use with standard gamma cameras, and a shorter half-life which allows the use of higher doses . This results in improved image quality and a number of " T c m labelled radiopharmaceuticals have therefore been developed. It is a lipophilic, cationic diphosphine which shows excellent myocardial uptake and prolonged retention [5,6]. Its rapid clearance from background organs allows earlier imaging, making a one day stress-rest protocol feasible. Furthermore, its kit formu lation obviates the need for heating, thereby reducing preparation time . Since myocardial perfusion imaging yields results that must be judged subjec tively, interpretation usually requires some confidence threshold to be established in the mind of the decision maker. Patients who had experienced a myocardial infarction within the last two months or had clinical evidence of unstable angina, congestive heart failure, signifi cant valvular disease, left bundle branch block or congenital heart disease were excluded, as were women of child bearing potential. Each patient also underwent coronary arteriography using standard techniques and all arteriograms were read by experienced, ‘blinded’ observers. Lesions >50% stenosis were considered significant; the data were also analysed using >75% stenosis angiographic criteria for comparison. The apex was represented in the centre, septum to the left, lateral wall to the right, and the anterior and inferior walls above and below, respectively. Seg ments were ascribed a visual score as follows: 0 = normal, 1 = probably abnormal, 2 = definitely abnormal. Scintigraphic scores were derived by summation of the cer tainty scores of each of the 18 segments. Coronary arteriography was used as the ‘gold’ standard for the detection of coronary artery disease. Scintigrams were com pared with their respective coronary arteriograms and true positive and false positive fractions were calculated at varying scintigraphic score decision thresholds (Fig. These w ere plotted and the area under the derived R O C curve w a s used as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Construction of the R O C curves w a s facilitated b y the C L A B R O C p r o g r a m in the R O C F I T software package.