By N. Rune. Frostburg State University.
Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference cheap 50mg caverta with mastercard. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional purchase caverta 50mg online. Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Title for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Title • Enter a journal title in the original language • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found within the title • Follow the title with a colon and any subtitle that appears • Follow a non-English title with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets • End the journal title with a period unless an Edition statement or a Type of Medium is included purchase generic caverta from india, then use a space Specific Rules for Title • Journal titles not in English • Journals appearing in more than one language Journals 91 • Journals appearing in diferent editions Box 71. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. If a journal is published in more than one edition: • Capitalize all signifcant words in edition information • Separate the edition from the title itself by a space and place it in parentheses • End all title information with a period Examples: American Homeopathy (Consumer Edition). Journal title published in multiple languages 94 Citing Medicine Edition for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Edition • Indicate the edition/version being cited afer the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version • Do not abbreviate or omit any words • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the edition statement • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (British Edition) • End the edition statement with a period placed outside the closing parenthesis unless the Type of Medium is included, then use a space Specific Rules for Edition • Non-English words for edition Box 74. Ausgabe Klientiere Heimtiere becomes Tierarztliche Praxis (Ausgabe Klientiere Heimtiere). Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Journal title with edition Type of Medium for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Type of Medium • Indicate the specifc type of medium (microfche, ultrafche, microflm, microcard, etc. Jones • Follow the name with a comma and the word "editor" • End editor information with a period Specific Rules for Editor • Editor names not in English Box 75. Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Publisher for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Publisher • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Place all translated names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Designate the agency making the publication available as the publisher and include distributor information as a note. Add the name of the distributor, the city and state, and the accession or order number. For journals with joint or co-publishers, use the name provided frst as the publisher. Journal title with government agency or national or international organization as publisher 17. Journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Volume Number for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Volume Number • Precede the number with "Vol. Journal title published in more than one series Issue Number for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Issue Number • Precede the issue number with "No. Journal title without volume or issue number Date of Publication for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Include the month and year the journal began to be published, in that order, such as May 2004 • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. Enter closing volume and issue information followed by a comma (see above) and the closing date. Specific Rules for Date of Publication • Multiple years, months, or days of publication • Non-English names for months • Seasons instead of months • Options for dates Box 91. Journal title with multiple years in beginning or ending dates of publication Physical Description for Entire Journal Titles (optional) General Rules for Physical Description • Enter the medium on which the journal title is issued, in plural form, if a journal is published in a microform • Follow the medium by a colon and a space, such as Microfche: • Give information on the physical characteristics of the medium, such as color and size Specific Rules for Physical Description • Language for describing physical characteristics Box 95. If a journal is published on microfche, microflm, or microcards: • Begin with the name of the type of microform, in plural form, followed by a colon and a space Microfche: Microflm: Microcards: • Enter information on the physical characteristics, such as color and size. Journal title in a microform Language for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Language • Give the language of publication if not English • Capitalize the language name • Follow the language name with a period Specific Rules for Language • Journals appearing in more than one language Box 96. Journal title published in multiple languages Notes for Entire Journal Titles (optional) General Rules for Notes • Notes is a collective term for further useful information about the journal • If the journal was previously published under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continues: ", such as Continues: Immunochemistry. Specific Rules for Notes • Other types of material to include in notes 114 Citing Medicine Box 97. Begin with the phrase "Located at" followed by a colon and a space Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschafen. Journal title both previously published and continuing to be published under another name 33. Journal title with examples of other notes Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles 1. Standard journal title that is still being published Advances in Applied Microbiology. Standard journal title that has ceased publication Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Journal title not in English, with optional translation Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux [Archives of Diseases of the Heart and Vessels]. Journal title published in two equal languages Canadian Family Physician = Medecin de Famille Canadien. Journal title with editor included Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology. Journal title with well-known place of publication Advances in Health Sciences Education: Teory and Practice. Journal title with lesser-known place of publication Biological Research for Nursing. Journal title with unknown place of publication Acta Radiologica: Terapy, Physics, Biology. Journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Al-Azhar Medical Journal. Journal title published in more than one series Te American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Journal title with days of the month included in date British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). Journal title with multiple years in beginning or ending dates of publication Nursing Forum. Continues: Journal of the Australian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. Te Journal of Immunology: Ofcial Journal of the American Association of Immunologists. Continued by: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology. Journal title both previously published and continuing to be published under another name Nursing & Health Care: Ofcial Publication of the National League for Nursing. Journal title with frequency of publication note Nursing History Review: Ofcial Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing. Journal title with note on a library where it may be located European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery: Ofcial Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery.
This surgery is risky: approximately 6 to 10% of patients will either die or suffer severe neurological damage as a result of a stroke during the surgery order caverta now, and about 7 to 11% of the patients will die during or soon (less than one month) after having a carotid endarterectomy caverta 50mg fast delivery. Newer order genuine caverta online, less invasive procedures include angioplasty done by threading catheters through the femoral artery in the leg and up through the aorta to the carotid, then inﬂating a balloon to dilate the artery. However, it remains controversial whether angioplasty is actually safer or produces better outcomes. What is known is that carotid endarterectomies or angioplasties are of no value to patients with less than 70% blockage (as determined by an angiograph). These symptoms included short-term memory loss, vertigo, headache, ringing in the ears, lack of vigilance, and depression. These results suggest that vascular insufﬁciency, not a true degenerative process, may be the major cause of these so-called age-related cerebral disorders. Appropriate treatment involves following the recommendations in the chapter “Heart and Cardiovascular Health. Cervical Dysplasia • A Pap smear of the cervix showing abnormal (but not cancerous) cells The cervix is a small, cylindrical organ that comprises the lower part and neck of the uterus. The cervix contains a central canal (the endocervical canal) for passage of sperm and menstrual blood, and for childbirth. Both the canal and the outer surface of the cervix are lined with two types of cells: mucus-producing (glandular) cells and protective (squamous) cells. The term dysplasia refers to abnormal cells that are not cancerous but have the potential to become cancer. Cervical dysplasia is diagnosed by a Pap smear—a sampling of cells from the surface of the cervix. Before any cancer appears, abnormal changes occur in cells on the surface of the cervix. Fortunately, cervical cancer is one of the few cancers with well-deﬁned precancerous stages, so when detected early it usually can be treated quite successfully. Most laboratories in the United States use a standard set of terms, called the Bethesda System, to report Pap test results. The Bethesda System considers abnormalities of squamous cells (the thin, ﬂat cells that form the surface of the cervix) and glandular cells (mucus-producing cells found in the endocervical canal or in the lining of the uterus) separately. Glandular cell abnormalities are much less common than squamous cell abnormalities. Samples with cell abnormalities are divided into the following categories, ranging from the mildest to the most severe. The cells do not appear normal, but doctors are uncertain about what the cell changes mean. Intraepithelial refers to the layer of cells that forms the surface of the cervix. Neoplasia means an abnormal growth of cells, and the number describes how much of the thickness of the lining of the cervix contains abnormal cells—only the top layer, in this case. High-grade means that there are more evident changes in the size and shape of the abnormal (precancerous) cells and that the cells look very different from normal cells. Although they are not cancer, these abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby healthy tissue. Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cervical squamous cells invade deeper into the cervix or to other tissues or organs. In a well-screened population, such as that in the United States, a finding of cancer on a Pap test is extremely rare. The glandular cells do not appear normal, but doctors are uncertain about what the cell changes mean. Causes Since cervical dysplasia is a precancerous lesion, the risk factors for cervical dysplasia are identical to those for cervical cancer. The time from exposure to the appearance of a genital wart or an abnormal Pap smear can range from a few weeks to decades. This suggests that the immune system is able to defend against the development of clinical infection, cervical dysplasia, and cancer. A complex interaction of defense mechanisms, including immunity, viral load, viral type, and host susceptibility, determines the natural course of the disease. The other risk factors given above are largely what determines which of these possibilities will occur. For example, smoking is a signiﬁcant risk factor for cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia: smokers have an approximately threefold increased incidence compared with nonsmokers, with one study showing the increase to be as high as 17-fold in women ages 20 to 29. Therapeutic Considerations A follow-up Pap test is always indicated to determine what course of action is needed. A colposcopy is a procedure in which a colposcope—an instrument much like a microscope—is used to examine the vagina and the cervix. During a colposcopy, the doctor inserts a speculum to widen the vagina and may apply a dilute vinegar solution to the cervix; this solution causes abnormal areas to turn white. The doctor then uses the colposcope (which remains outside the body) to observe the cervix. If colposcopy ﬁnds abnormal tissue, the doctor may perform endocervical curettage—a type of biopsy that involves scraping cells from inside the endocervical canal with a small spoon-shaped tool called a curette. Diet Numerous nutritional factors have been implicated as cofactors for cervical dysplasia. A large proportion (67%) of patients with cervical cancer are deﬁcient in at least one nutrient (particularly beta-carotene and vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin C), while 38% show more than one deficiency. A high fat intake has been associated with an increased risk for cervical cancer, while a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is believed to offer signiﬁcant protection against carcinogenesis, probably owing to the higher intake of ﬁber, beta- carotene, and vitamin C. Several studies have shown that topical vitamin A therapy produces rather impressive results. In one study, 301 women received either four consecutive two-hour applications (using a collagen sponge in a cervical cap) of vitamin A or a placebo followed by two more applications at three and six months. Vitamin A (retinoic acid) increased the complete regression rate of moderate dysplasia from 27% in the placebo group to 43% in the treatment group. Of the 10 patients with a complete response, 5 had had mild dysplasia and 5 had had moderate dysplasia. Vitamin C A signiﬁcant decrease in vitamin C intake and plasma levels occurs in patients with cervical dysplasia, and it has been documented that inadequate vitamin C intake is an independent risk factor for the development of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Increased glutathione peroxidase activity resulting from increased selenium intake is believed to be the factor responsible for selenium’s anticarcinogenic effect, although other factors may be of equal significance. For example, folic acid deficiency in red blood cells causes the cells to become macrocytic, or larger than normal. Interestingly, abnormal cell structure due to folic acid insufﬁciency is visible in the cervix before it is visible in the red blood cells. This observation is particularly applicable to patients taking oral contraceptives. It has been hypothesized that the hormones induce a localized interference with folate metabolism, so although serum levels may be increased, tissue levels at end-organ targets such as the cervix may be inadequate. When patients were treated with folic acid, the regression-to-normal rate, as determined by colposcopy/biopsy examination, was observed to be 20% in one study,34 63. Lower folic acid status has been shown to enhance the effect of other risk factors for cervical dysplasia.
By age 40 order 50mg caverta with visa, half of women will have completely lost their capacity for reproduction order caverta 50 mg with visa. By 45 years of age discount caverta 50mg on line, the fertility rate is only 1 pregnancy per 100 inseminated women. The general recommendations in this chapter can be used along with conventional medical treatments. It is important to realize that there are three types of patients suffering from infertility: • Those who achieve pregnancy by maximizing their fertility • Those who require assistance in the form of in vitro fertilization and other assisted-reproduction technologies • Those who simply cannot get pregnant owing primarily to age, genetic disorders, or various health conditions that compromise fertility The ﬁrst step to successful conception is timing the attempt of conception during a woman’s window of fertility. A widely held misinterpretation is that frequent ejaculations decrease male fertility. A retrospective study analyzed 9,489 men with normal semen quality, sperm concentrations, and motility and found that proﬁles remained normal even with daily ejaculation. So, in other words, daily intercourse is probably more important than trying to time it just right. Hence, the fertility window is best deﬁned as the six-day interval ending on the day of ovulation. Body Fat Percentage For optimal fertility, women need to ensure that their body fat percentage is between 20 and 25%. A body fat percentage below 17% can result in irregular menstrual cycles, and some research suggests that even after ideal body fat levels have been achieved, it can take as long as two years before regular conception occurs. Obesity increases the risk for miscarriage, birth defects, and pregnancy complications. Environmental Factors Industrialization and the use of agricultural chemicals has contributed to increased exposure to thousands of chemicals now associated with negative impact on male and female infertility. Exposure to environmental toxins such as radiation, heavy metals, and chemicals can cause oxidative stress and damage, negatively affecting female fertility. These issues are more fully discussed in the chapter “Infertility (Male)” but also apply to female infertility. Smoking Cigarette smoking, whether active or passive, reduces both pregnancy rates and long-term ovarian function. Additionally, smokers are more likely to have premature menopause, thus making smoking one of the easiest preventable causes of infertility. Smoking appears to reduce fertility by having a direct effect on the uterus, eggs, and embryo. Considering that the average age for conception today is 30 and fertility tends to decline greatly after 38 years of age, it should be obvious that a woman trying to get pregnant needs to stop smoking. Even passive smoking is associated with reduced fertility and decreases the chance of a healthy live birth in both fertile and infertile populations. In addition, diuretic properties will increase the loss of nutrients that are beneficial to fertility. Alcohol The effect of alcohol intake on female fertility is variable from one woman to the next, but there is no question that it can negatively affect fertility in many women. One study estimated that as little as one drink per week could lead to a 50% reduction in conception. It is a well-known fact that alcohol intake during pregnancy can produce fetal abnormalities. Diet and Lifestyle There is abundant scientiﬁc research showing the importance of nutrition and lifestyle to a woman’s fertility. Speciﬁcally, research clearly indicates that eating a healthful diet improves the chances for ovulation, conception, and the birth of a healthy child. In particular, it is important to point out that iron deﬁciency is the most common nutritional deﬁciency in women and can be a cause of infertility. A high antioxidant intake, both dietary and supplemental, improves fertility in women as well as reduces the risk for miscarriage. Arginine Arginine is a precursor to the synthesis of nitric oxide, which is required for the formation of new blood vessels to nourish the developing fetus, as well as other aspects of fertility. Probiotics Alterations in the microﬂora of the vagina and subsequent genital and intrauterine infections have been linked to reproductive failure and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor, miscarriage, and spontaneous preterm birth. Botanical Medicines Chasteberry The best-documented herb for improving fertility is chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus). It seems to be especially useful when there is an elevation in the hormone prolactin, which can disrupt the menstrual cycle and contribute to infertility. Chasteberry can inhibit prolactin secretion and has been shown to correct menstrual irregularities caused by mild elevations of prolactin. General Recommendations • Identify and eliminate exposure to environmental hazards, including pesticides, solvents, heavy metals, and other toxins • Utilize effective stress-reduction techniques (employ psychological counseling if needed) • Avoid cigarette smoking, alcohol, and recreational drugs • Avoid douches, vaginal sprays, scented tampons, or other feminine products that change the pH of the vagina and disturb vaginal microecology. If you are using the liquid extract, the typical dosage is 2 to 4 ml (1/2 to 1 tsp) per day. Infertility (Male) • Inability to conceive a child after six months of unprotected sex at least twice weekly with the same partner in the absence of female causes • A total sperm count lower than 5 million/ml • The presence of greater than 50% abnormal sperm • Inability of sperm to impregnate egg, as determined by the postcoital or hamster-egg penetration tests Infertility affects about 7. It is estimated that one in seven couples in the United States experiences infertility. Current estimates suggest that about 6% of men between the ages of 15 and 50 years are infertile. Although it takes only one sperm to fertilize an egg, there are nearly 200 million sperm in an average ejaculation. However, because of the natural barriers in the female reproductive tract, only about 40 sperm will ever reach the vicinity of an egg. There is a strong correlation between fertility and the number of sperm in an ejaculation. In about 90% of the cases of low sperm count, the reason is deﬁcient sperm production. Unfortunately, in about 9 out of 10 of those cases, the cause of the decreased sperm formation cannot be identiﬁed, and the condition is labeled idiopathic oligospermia (low sperm count) or azoospermia (a complete absence of living sperm). Causes of Male Infertility Deficient sperm production Ductal obstruction Congenital defects Postinfectious obstruction Cystic fibrosis Vasectomy Ejaculatory dysfunction Premature ejaculation Retrograde ejaculation Disorders of accessory glands Infection Inflammation Antisperm antibodies Coital disorders Defects in technique Premature withdrawal Erectile dysfunction Since the overwhelming majority of men who are infertile suffer from deﬁcient sperm production, that is the major focus of this chapter. Normal sperm are deﬁned as having the following characteristics: Anatomy of the Male Sexual System • A smooth, oval-shaped head that is 5 to 6 micrometers long and 2. Total sperm count and sperm quality have been deteriorating over the last few decades. In 1940, the average sperm count was 113 million/ml; in 1990, that value had dropped to 66 million/ml; and it is now holding steady at around 60 million/ml. Adding to this problem, the amount of semen in an ejaculation fell almost 20%, from 3. All together, these changes mean that men are now supplying about 40% of the number of sperm per ejaculation compared with 1940 levels. The downward trend in sperm count has led to speculation that environmental, dietary, and/or lifestyle changes in recent decades may be interfering with men’s ability to manufacture sperm. Possible Causes of Falling Sperm Count • Increased scrotal temperature • Tight-fitting clothing and briefs • Varicoceles (varicose veins that surround the testes) • Environment • Increased pollution • Heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.