Unfort unat ely buy vastarel with visa, most of t hese individuals will develop biliary obstruction order 20 mg vastarel free shipping, duodenal obstruction buy vastarel 20 mg with amex, and/ or pain prior to death. The bili- ary obst ruct ions in pat ient s with peri-ampullary cancers are most often located in the distal bile duct, and these types of obstructions can be addressed with place- ment of intraluminal stents to bypass the biliary obstructions. Stent placement can be p er for m ed en d oscopically in som e cases or by a p er cut an eou s t r an sh epat ic route, depending whether the biliary tree can be accessed through the Ampulla of Va t er. W h en p r o lo n ged su r viva l ( > 6 m o n t h s ) is a n t icip a t ed, a m et a l m es h st en t can be placed. O t h er wise, in pat ient s wh o are exp ect ed t o h ave sh or t er sur vival, a plastic stent can be inserted for short-term palliation. For patients who undergo operative explorations and are subsequently found to have unresectable disease, surgical bypass of the biliary t ree and t he duodenum can be performed wit h t he creat ion of a ch olecyst ojejun ost omy or ch oled och al-jejun ost omy. Similarly, duode- nal obstruction can be relieved surgically with formation of a gastrojejunostomy. Duodenal obstruction by peri-ampullary tumors can be palliated endoscopically wit h the placement of self-expanding met al stent s when t he obst ruct ive process is not complete. T h e great est uncert aint y for t h ese pat ient s is est imat ion of t h eir life- expect ancies, as we do not want t o over-t reat individuals wit h limit ed survival or under-treat individuals with longer than expected survival. Palliative chemotherapy or palliative chemoradiation therapy can be also considered for some individuals and have been demonst rated to extend survival. O ver t he past decade, palliat ive ch em ot h er apy an d ch em or adiat ion t r eat ment s h ave become m or e effect ive in pr o- longing pat ient sur vival, t h ereby increasing the need for palliat ive surgical and endoscopic procedures in pat ient s wit h unresect able peri-ampullary cancers. Pa llia t io n o f Pa in Pain associated with peri-ampullary cancers can be excruciating; for some patients, this pain can be alleviated or partially alleviated with percutaneous celiac plexus nerve blocks or nerve ablation in addition to standard narcotic analgesia. Alternatively, endo- scopic/ endo-ult rasound-guided celiac plexus blocks can also be performed in some patients for pain relief. The assessment of patients with cystic lesions of the pancreas begins with a good history and examination, followed by imaging studies, and cyst fluid analyses. Sid e-br an ch I P M N s h ave low malign ant potential and can be simply observed. Serous cystic neoplasms have a predilection for the head of the pancreas and do not have a potential for malignant transformation. Surgical resection is indicated only when the lesions become symptomatic or in cases of diagnostic uncertainty. W hich of t he following is most accurate st ate- ment regarding this type of malignancy? Most of these cancers are located in the head and uncinate process of the pancreas B. R igh t u p p er q u ad r an t p ain, fever, an d jau n d ice are the m o st co m m o n fin d in gs associat ed wit h t u m or C. Curative surgery is typically obtainable when the malignancy is located in t he body of t he pancreas E. A 55-year-old man with a history of alcoholism who presents with jaun- dice and an isolated mass in the head of the pancreas. A 6 0 - year - old m an wit h C h ild C lass C cir r h o sis an d can cer of h ead of the pancreas. A 40-year-old man with carcinoma of the head of the pancreas with tumor invasion of the superior mesenteric vein and artery D. A 50-year-old man with Gardner syndrome and a 2-cm adenoma of the second port ion of the duodenum E. A 38-year-old woman with an 8-cm pseudocyst involving the head of the pancreas 33. Patients with isolated liver metastasis can often be cured with surgical resection D. It is usually associated with predominantly elevated indirect serum bili- rubin levels E. This cancer is an uncommon cancer making up of 2% of all cancers diag- nosed in the United St ates, and it is responsible for 2% of deaths due to can cer in the Un it ed St at es B. More than 50% of patients in the United St ates with pancreatic cancers have distant metastases at the time of diagnosis C. Surgical palliation for pancreatic cancer is directed at reducing the tumor burden E. W hipple procedures are being applied more liberally in the treatment of patients with head of the pancreas cancers because long term survival has significant ly improved following t his operat ion B. W h ip p le p r o ced u r e can p r ovid e the o p p o r t u n it y fo r cu r e fo r patient s wit h peri-ampullary carcinoma C. W hipple procedure with arterial and venous reconstruction is indicated for pat ient s wit h t umor invasion of the superior mesent eric ar t er y an d vein D. This operation is not indicated because of the high rate of postoperative complicat ion s E. Which of the followin g is the m ost likely d iagn osis associat ed wit h this lesion? Adenocarcinoma of pancreatic ductal origin is the most common of the peri-ampullary cancers. Cholangiocarcinomas arising from the distal com- mon bile duct is the second most common, and adenocarcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater is t he t hird most common. R ou gh ly t wo -t h ir d s of p an cr eat ic ad en o car cin om as are lo cat ed in the h ead or uncinate process of the pancreas; 15% are located in the body; 10% are locat ed in the pancreat ic t ail, and the remain ing lesions are diffuse in locat ion. Pancreatic cancers located in the head and unicinate process are the most likely t o be curable because of earlier sympt om onset. For this patient with obstructive jaundice and severe itching secondary to widely metastatic pancreatic cancer originating from the pancreatic head, endoscopic st ent placement can help relieve his jaundice and improve h is quality of life. This patient has obstructive jaundice and a localized mass of unknown nature in the head of the pancreas and is a candidate for pancreaticoduo- denectomy. The procedure can be both diagnostic and therapeutic for this gen t lem an pr ovid in g that h e is h ealt h y en ou gh t o wit h st an d the su r gical pr o- cedu r e. T h e pat ient wit h C h ild s C lass C cir r h osis is a p oor su r gical can di- date for this operation. Treatment of a large symptomatic pseudocyst in the head of the pancreas is internal drainage. The majority of patients with pancreatic cancers present with unresect- able disease eit her because of local advancement or t he presence of dist ant metastases. The prognosis of patients with distant metastasis is extremely poor; therefore, there is no indication to perform liver resections for patients with met astases to the liver. O bstructive jaundice is associated with eleva- tions in total bilirubin with predominant elevations in direct bilir ubin valu es. Greater than 50% of patients with pancreatic cancers present with locally advanced disease or dist ant met ast ases.
Routine smear for liquid-based cytology The family history is not relevant as cervical cancer is not genetic discount vastarel 20mg with amex. However discount 20 mg vastarel with amex, this woman has reached the age at which she should be enrolled on the screen- ing programme and this seems like a good opportunity buy vastarel 20 mg on line. Select the most appropriate investigation based on the clinical information given. J Urodynamics The diagnosis is likely to be either detrusor instability or genuine stress inconti- nence and urodynamics will help you differentiate between them. She is at risk of losing her job as she cannot continue to work in the ﬁelds on account of her symptoms. She is still menstruating regularly but wonders if she is menopausal because she has night sweats. C Flexible cystoscopy Smoking is a risk factor for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, which should be excluded frst before the incontinence is addressed, especially in view of the haematuria. A Arrange to see the woman on her own to ask her about domestic abuse B Arrange an independent translator and ask about domestic abuse C Ask the relatives if she is experiencing domestic abuse D Ask the community midwife to visit her at home E Contact the adult safeguarding team F Contact the police G Discuss child protection issues with the on-call social work team H Encourage the woman to confde in a close relative if she is being abused I Give the woman a card with contact numbers of agencies and refuges J Offer immediate admission to hospital You are concerned about the possibility of domestic violence in each of these women who are attending the hospital for antenatal care. Her 25-year-old boyfriend is also present to watch the scan and when she is asked questions (such as her address and date of birth) he supplies the answers. A Arrange to see the woman on her own to ask her about domestic violence 29 At 02. Speculum examination reveals a tear in the posterior vaginal fornix which is not actively bleeding and the cervix is healthy. J Offer immediate admission to hospital 30 A 26-year-old immigrant woman attends antenatal clinic at 34 weeks with her sister-in-law who translates for her, as she speaks no English at all. This is her ﬁrst pregnancy and she is having growth scans on account of recur- rent ante-partum haemorrhage. The growth of the baby is ﬁne, but when you are auscultating the fetal heart you notice some circular lesions on the maternal abdomen that look like cigarette burns. B Arrange an independent translator and ask about domestic abuse Domestic violence is a common problem that crosses social boundaries and some- times results in extreme outcomes, that is, the death of the woman. In some areas of the country up to a quarter of women booking for antenatal care will have expe- rienced some sort of domestic abuse that can take many forms: violence, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, control of her fnances, and so forth. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of agencies and facilities able to help protect the woman and be able to discuss the subject with a patient at short notice. Women should be asked about the possibility of domestic abuse at some stage in their antenatal care without any other family members or acquaintances being present, in case they are part of the problem. If a woman discloses that she is being subjected to violence, you may need to arrange admission to a place of safety such as hospital. There could be child pro- tection issues if he is harming the children as well so if there are children in the equation, don’t forget their needs. A Advise against fying B Advise against travel after 32 weeks of gestation C Advise against travel after 36 weeks of gestation D Aspirin 75 mg for duration of fight and several days afterwards E Avoid fying in frst trimester F Graduated compression stockings G Hydration and mobilization during fight H Low molecular weight heparin for duration of fight I Low molecular weight heparin for fight and several days afterwards 268 09:38:04. She fractured her tibia and ﬁbula 2 days ago and is wearing a plaster on her leg but the airline has assured her that a wheelchair will be available for her use at the airport. She is concerned about the risks of air travel in pregnancy and seeks your advice. A Advise against ﬂying The recent fracture with plaster is hazardous because signifcant swelling can occur in fight, which might compromise the circulation to the limb. She seeks your advice because she is concerned about the risk of thromboembolism and is wondering about catching a train instead. J Reassurance/no special measures needed For short-haul fights no specifc measures are likely to be required. B Advise against travel after 32 weeks of gestation The main worry is the risk of going into labour in fight and delivering without appropriate medical aid, which is clearly more of a risk with twins rather than a singleton pregnancy. If the pregnancy were singleton, you would advise against travelling after 37 weeks although some airlines insist on 36 weeks as a cutoff. A Advise against ﬂying Although airline cabins are pressurized, the barometric pressure is signifcantly lower than at sea level. Severe anaemia with a haemoglobin <75 gm/L is a con- traindication to air travel because of the potential reduction in blood oxygen satu- ration of 10 per cent due to reduced pO2 at altitude. Select the most appropriate method for delivering the required learning objective. You are asked to ensure that they have been taught to do speculum examination by the end of their ﬁrst week. H Practical simulation session using a dummy The best way to learn any practical technique is to see it demonstrated then to have a go at it yourself preferably with feedback. The only way to deliver that to a medical student having a go for the frst time is to run a practical session using a dummy, before you let them loose on a patient. E Mini clinical evaluation exercise Mini clinical evaluation exercise is ideal for watching a trainee interact with a patient and giving feedback to improve their performance. From the preceding list choose the most likely diagnosis given the examination fndings. On examination she has pink linear wrinkles, and she has clearly been scratching them. H Striae gravidarum She could have any itching skin condition but the description of linear wrinkles means that these are likely to be striae. E Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy Sparing of the umbilicus suggests this diagnosis A Amlodipine B Bendrofumethazide C Hydralazine D Labetalol E Magnesium Sulphate F Methyldopa G Nifedipine H Ramipril These clinical scenarios relate to pregnant women presenting with hypertensive problems. On admission her blood pressure is repeated twice and found to be 165/100 mgHg and 158/110 mmHg. D Labetalol Although this woman clearly has pre-eclampsia and may need magnesium sul- phate and delivery, you must stabilise her blood pressure frst as she is at risk of intracerebral bleeding with a blood pressure this high. She attends surgery after a posi- tive pregnancy test and thinks that she is probably 7 weeks pregnant. Having talked to her husband, she is not too upset and is intending to keep the pregnancy. Send her for a routine booking scan mentioning the coil on the scan request form E. Not only that, miscarriage is more likely to be complicated by infection if the coil is still present, so the advice is to remove it. There is a risk of ectopic pregnancy when a woman conceives with a coil in situ so an earlier scan than 12 weeks is indicated. Which of these options is the most appropriate course of action for the midwife in charge of the ward to take? Write to the woman and ask her to return the list This is a serious breach of confdentiality and the person responsible for informa- tion governance will have to be informed. Her ankles and feet are so swol- len that she has had to wear sandals instead of shoes and can no longer wear her rings. On examination she does have bilateral varicose veins and both ankles are mildly oedematous but there is no redness or tenderness in either leg.
Dietary sources include mayonnaise order genuine vastarel on line, canola oil purchase vastarel 20 mg on line, soybean oil buy cheap vastarel 20mg on line, and green leafy vegetables. Patients do not need to avoid these foods but instead should keep intake of vitamin K constant. If vitamin K intake does increase, then warfarin dosage should be increased as well. Conversely, if vitamin K intake decreases, the warfarin dosage should decrease too. Contrasts Between Warfarin and Heparin Although heparin and warfarin are both anticoagulants, they differ in important ways (Table 44. Although both drugs decrease fibrin formation, they do so by different mechanisms: heparin inactivates thrombin and factor Xa, whereas warfarin inhibits synthesis of clotting factors. Heparin and warfarin differ with respect to time course of action: effects of heparin begin and fade rapidly, whereas effects of warfarin begin slowly but persist several days. Finally, these drugs differ with respect to management of overdose: protamine is given to counteract heparin; vitamin K is given to counteract warfarin. Dosage Basic Considerations Dosage requirements for warfarin vary widely among individuals, and hence dosage must be tailored to each patient. Dosage reductions based on this information can be determined using the calculator at www. Preparations Warfarin sodium [Coumadin, Jantoven] is available in tablets (1, 2, 2. In addition, warfarin is available in a formulation for parenteral dosing, which is not commonly done. Direct Thrombin Inhibitors The anticoagulants discussed in this section work by direct inhibition of thrombin. Hence they differ from the heparin-like anticoagulants, which inhibit thrombin indirectly (by enhancing the activity of antithrombin). Dabigatran Etexilate Dabigatran etexilate [Pradaxa, Pradax ] is an oral prodrug that undergoes rapid conversion to dabigatran, a reversible, direct thrombin inhibitor. Compared with warfarin—our oldest oral anticoagulant—dabigatran has five major advantages: rapid onset; no need to monitor anticoagulation; few drug-food interactions; lower risk for major bleeding; and, because responses are predictable, the same dose can be used for all patients, regardless of age or weight. The drug binds with and inhibits thrombin that is free in the blood as well as thrombin that is bound to clots. In the United States dabigatran was first approved for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. At the lower dabigatran dose (110 mg twice daily), the incidence of bleeding with dabigatran was less than with warfarin, but protection against stroke was less, too. By contrast, at the higher dose (150 mg twice daily), the incidence of bleeding with dabigatran equaled that with warfarin, but the incidence of stroke or embolism was significantly lower. The half-life is 13 hours in patients with normal renal function (CrCl 50 mL/min or higher) and increases to 18 hours in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30–50 mL/min). Compared with warfarin, dabigatran is safer, posing a much lower risk for hemorrhagic stroke and other major bleeds. Because dabigatran is not highly protein bound, dialysis can remove much of the drug (about 60% over 2–3 hours). Because dabigatran is eliminated primarily in the urine, maintaining adequate diuresis is important. For patients with normal renal function (CrCl 50 mL/min or higher), dosing should stop 1 or 2 days before surgery. For patients with renal impairment (CrCl below 50 mL/min), dosing should stop 3 to 5 days before surgery. Symptoms of dyspepsia can be reduced by taking dabigatran with food and by using an acid-suppressing drug (proton pump inhibitor or histamine-2 receptor blocker). Drug Interactions Dabigatran is not metabolized by hepatic P450 enzymes, nor is it an inhibitor or inducer of these enzymes. Dabigatran etexilate is a substrate for intestinal P-glycoprotein, the transporter protein that can pump dabigatran and other drugs back into the intestine. Drugs that inhibit P-glycoprotein can increase dabigatran absorption and blood levels, and drugs that induce P-glycoprotein can decrease dabigatran absorption and blood levels. Combined use with a P-glycoprotein inducer appears to be safe, even though it might reduce beneficial effects somewhat. Dabigatran etexilate [Pradaxa] is available in three strengths: 75, 110, and 150- mg capsules. If the capsules are crushed, chewed, or opened, absorption will be increased by 75%, thereby posing a risk for bleeding. However, if the missed dose cannot be taken at least 6 hours before the next scheduled dose, the missed dose should be skipped. In patients with significant renal impairment (CrCl 15–30 mL/min), the dosage is 75 mg twice a day. For patients with greater renal impairment (CrCl below 15 mL/min), no dosing recommendation can be made. To maintain efficacy, the drug must be stored in the manufacturer-supplied bottle, which has a desiccant cap. Patients should open just one bottle at a time and should not distribute dabigatran to any other container, such as a weekly pill organizer. Current labeling says that, after the bottle is opened, dabigatran should be used within 30 days. However, recent evidence indicates that dabigatran capsules maintain efficacy for 4 months, provided they are stored in the original container —away from excessive moisture, heat, and cold—with the cap tightly closed after each use. Hirudin Analogs Desirudin Desirudin [Iprivask] is a direct thrombin inhibitor given by subQ injection. Desirudin is completely absorbed after subQ injection, achieving peak plasma levels in 1 to 3 hours. In patients with normal renal function, the elimination half- life is 2 to 3 hours. By contrast, in those with severe renal impairment, the half- life is greatly prolonged (up to 12 hours). As with other anticoagulants, hemorrhage is the adverse effect of greatest concern. In clinical trials, the incidence of hemorrhage was 30% in the desirudin group compared with 33% in the enoxaparin group and 20% in the heparin group. Less serious effects include wound secretion, injection-site mass, anemia, nausea, and deep thrombophlebitis. In patients undergoing spinal or epidural anesthesia, desirudin may cause spinal or epidural hematoma, which can result in long-term or even permanent paralysis. Patients should be monitored for signs of neurologic impairment and given immediate treatment if they develop.
In t e s t in a l Ad a p t a t io n Functional recovery of the remnant intestines occurs after partial intestinal resec- tions cheap vastarel 20 mg, but usually requires time (weeks order discount vastarel line, months discount generic vastarel uk, to years). D uring adaptation, the remnant small bowel will dilate, the intestinal villi an d cr yp t d ep t h will in cr ease t o exp an d the sm all b owel ab sor p t ive su r face ar ea. In general, adaptation processes are more robust in younger individuals without significant comorbidities, and in individuals with rem- nant distal small bowel. Parenteral nut rit ion is often st arted early postoperatively to help patients meet their nutritional requirements while intes- tinal recovery and adaptation are taking place. As the patients’intestinal functions improve, parenteral nut rit ion can be weaned. Long-term parenteral nut rit ion has clear ben efit s but is also associat ed wit h many complicat ion s, in cluding vascu lar complicat ion s, cat h et er-r elat ed complicat ion s, an d h epat ic an d r en al complica- tions. The benefits of parenteral nutritional and alternatives to parenteral nutrition need to be clearly delineated to justify the initiation and/ or continuation of paren- teral nutritional support. In patients with intestinal failure, in whom the remnant small bowel does not provide sufficient absorpt ive surface to sust ain t he individual, indefinite parenteral nut rit ional support and small bowel t ransplant at ion are some- times the only viable life-sustaining options. Int est inal failure is a t erm applied t o individuals requiring prolonged parenteral nutritional support to meet their nutritional needs (Grades 1– 5 differentiates the level of parenteral support needed), and intestinal insufficiency refers t o individuals wit h sufficient absorpt ive surfaces but require some temporary parenteral or fluid support during the postoperat ive intest inal adapt at ion periods. The limitation of this treatment is cost, which is estimated at $295,000 per year in the United States. Because of these adverse effects, somatropin is only used for temporary nutritional support. For some patients, the reversal of small bowel stoma with reconnection of small bowel to the colon can h elp impr ove flu id an d nut r it ion al r et ent ion. In the United States, the national average survival following small bowel transplantation is 87% at 1 year and 71% at 3 years. She has weight loss, diarrhea, and elect rolyte distur- bances with regular oral diet. A 58-year-old man with strangulated small bowel obstruction requiring removal of 320 cm of distal small bowel and cecum followed by primary anastomosis B. A 3 4 -year - old m an wit h t r au m at ic in ju r ies r esu lt in g in the r esect io n of 320 cm of jejunum followed by primary anastomosis C. A 58-year-old man after having undergone a prior total colectomy 2 years ago presents with strangulated small bowel obstruction requiring resection of 320 cm of his distal small bowel. A 58-year-old woman with prior history of cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy and recurrent bowel obstructions requiring resection of 320 cm of her dist al small bowel. H er jejunum containing radiat ion ent erit is is anast omosed t o her right colon E. A 34-year-old man with Crohn disease and chronic small bowel obstruc- tion with resection of 320 cm of his distal small bowel. Sh e has essentially no small bowel absorptive surface remaining; therefore, she would not be able t o gain nut rit ional independence. Long-t erm T P N is the best treatment choice for her, with possible small bowel transplantation after appropriate evaluat ions. At this time, it is best to help manage some of the metabolic complica- tions with supplemental parenteral nutrition/ fluids. At the same time, we should explore why she developed diarrhea and try to modify her diet to see if we can develop a st rat egy for h er t o not h ave t h ese complicat ions relat ed to her oral diet. T h e colon absor bs wat er an d elect rolyt es, an d also conver t s car boh ydr at es to short-chain fatty acids and absorbs the fatty acids. Par ent er al nut r it ion pr ovides the n eed ed nut r ient s an d fluids for pat ient s wh ose G I absorpt ive funct ions are inadequat e. Parenteral nutrition and bowel rest are detrimental to the intestinal adaptation process. In addition, extensive loss of ileum is associat ed wit h worse recover y pot ent ial t h an the loss of same lengt h of jejunum. T h e lengt h of the remnant small bowel is import ant for fu n ct ion al r ecover y; in ad d it ion, small bowel that is n ot d iseased (eg, Cr oh n disease or radiation enteritis) tends to have better functional recovery. It im p ro ve s a b s o rp t ive fu n c t io n o f the remnant small bowel and promotes mucosal growth in the remnant small bowel. Spectrum of short bowel syndrome in adults: intestinal insufficiency to intestinal failure. She has tried numerous dietary modifications, exer- cise regimens, and medications, but has not been able to achieve sustained weight lo ss. Sh e is co n ce rn e d a b o u the r h e a lt h st a t u s b e ca u se o f o b st ru ct ive sle e p a p n e a, a recent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a history of coronary artery dis- ease in several immediate family members. The findings from her cardiopulmonary examination and abdominal examination are unremarkable. The patient states in t e re st in a d d it io n a l the ra p y a n d wo u ld like yo u r o p in io n re g a rd in g o p e ra t ive in t e rve n t io n s fo r m a n a g e m e n t o f h e r o b e sit y. Complications associated with morbid obesity: D iab et es m ellit u s, h yp er t en sion, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, sleep apnea syndrome, gall- st ones, art hrit is, and infert ilit y are disease processes associat ed wit h morbid obesity. Become familiar with the complications associated with morbid obesity and the effectiveness of bariatric operations on met abolic syndrome. Become familiar with the short-term and long-term outcomes in weight reduc- tion achieved with operative treatment. On the basis of weight-to- height ratio alone, she is a candidate for surgical therapy. Her comorbidities, diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea add further evidence of the advanced nature of her disease. She is at high perioperative risk for complications includ- ing respirat ory compromise, infect ion, and venous t h rombosis. Met abolic syndrome is associated with morbid obesit y, and puts the patient at risk for cardiovascular disease and health-related complications. The adverse h ealt h effect s associat ed wit h obe- sit y may reduce t he affect ed pat ient’s qualit y of life and longevit y. The t reat ment goals of any pat ient with morbid obesit y should be focused on weight loss as well as on t he reduct ion in comorbidit ies ( Tables 22– 2 to 22– 4). N umerous studies have shown that the surgical treatment of morbid obesity provides better long- term weight loss results and clinically significant improvement of obesity-related complicat ion s over d iet an d exer cise alon e. It is imp or t ant for the pat ient an d ph y- sician t o have realist ic expect at ions about surgical t reat ment out come. Most suc- cessfu lly t r eat ed pat ient s ach ieve a r edu ct ion in weigh t that is su st ain able. Th e distal small bowel is attached to the gastric tube, and the proximal small bowel is attached to the lower ileum by percentage of excess body weight loss. Most of the patients additionally expe- rience an improvement in obesity-related complications following a successful surgery.
Agents that cause the least sexual dysfunction are the same three atypical antidepressants just mentioned discount vastarel 20 mg overnight delivery. Accordingly discount generic vastarel uk, patients should be informed about the high probability of sexual dysfunction and told to report any problems so that they can be addressed cheapest generic vastarel uk. During the first few weeks of therapy patients lose weight, perhaps because of drug-induced nausea and vomiting. Signs and symptoms include altered mental status (agitation, confusion, disorientation, anxiety, hallucinations, poor concentration) as well as incoordination, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, excessive sweating, tremor, and fever. Symptoms include dizziness, headache, nausea, sensory disturbances, tremor, anxiety, and dysphoria. These begin within days to weeks of the last dose and then persist for 1 to 3 weeks. The syndrome can be managed with supportive care and generally abates within a few days. This is much less frequent than among patients taking antipsychotic medications (see Chapter 24). However, because bruxism usually occurs during sleep, the condition often goes unrecognized. Other options include switching to a different class of antidepressant, use of a mouth guard, and treatment with low-dose buspirone. Fluoxetine can cause hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mEq/L), probably by increasing secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Accordingly, when fluoxetine is used in older- adult patients, sodium should be measured at baseline and periodically thereafter. Fluoxetine may cause dizziness and fatigue; patients who experience intense dizziness and fatigue should be warned against driving and other hazardous activities. Skin rash, which can be severe, has occurred in 4% of patients; in most cases, rashes readily respond to drug therapy (antihistamines, glucocorticoids) or to withdrawal of fluoxetine. Other drugs that increase the risk for serotonin syndrome include the serotonergic drugs listed in Table 25. The risk for bleeding with warfarin is compounded by a pharmacokinetic interaction. Because fluoxetine is highly bound to plasma proteins, it can displace other highly bound drugs. Sertraline is indicated for major depression, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Sertraline undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism followed by elimination in the urine and feces. Common side effects include headache, tremor, insomnia, agitation, nervousness, nausea, diarrhea, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Because of a risk for pimozide-induced dysrhythmias, sertraline (which raises pimozide levels) and pimozide should not be combined. The drug is approved for obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, bulimia, and panic disorder. The drug undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism followed by excretion in the urine. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, headache, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Accordingly, liver function should be assessed before treatment and weekly during the first month of therapy. The drug is indicated for major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes). Paroxetine is well absorbed after oral administration, even in the presence of food. After 5 to 6 weeks, the major complaints are headache, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Like all other antidepressants, paroxetine may increase the risk for suicide, especially in children and young adults. The drug undergoes hepatic metabolism followed by excretion in the urine and feces. The most common adverse effects are nausea, somnolence, dry mouth, and sexual dysfunction. Citalopram enters breast milk in amounts sufficient to cause somnolence, reduced feeding, and weight loss in the infant. Like all other antidepressants, citalopram may increase the risk for suicide, especially in children and young adults. Escitalopram Escitalopram [Lexapro, Cipralex ] is the S-isomer of citalopram [Celexa], which is a 50 : 50 mixture of S- and R-isomers. Accordingly, escitalopram retains the therapeutic benefits of citalopram but may be better tolerated. Escitalopram is approved for major depression and generalized anxiety disorder and has additional indication for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Canada. In clinical trials, the most common side effects were nausea, insomnia, somnolence, sweating, and fatigue. However, the true incidence of sexual dysfunction may be higher because the incidence of sexual problems reported during clinical trials is usually considerably lower than the incidence seen in actual practice. Like all other antidepressants, this drug can increase the risk for suicide, especially in children and young adults. Children/adolescents Antidepressants may increase the risk for suicide, especially during the early phase of treatment. Venlafaxine does not block cholinergic, histaminergic, or alpha -adrenergic 1 receptors. Venlafaxine is well absorbed after oral administration, in both the presence and absence of food. In the liver, much of each dose is converted to desvenlafaxine, an active metabolite. The half-life is 5 hours for the parent drug and 11 hours for the active metabolite. The most common is nausea (37%–58%), followed by headache, anorexia, nervousness, sweating, somnolence, and insomnia. Venlafaxine can also cause dose-related sustained diastolic hypertension; blood pressure should be monitored. Some patients experience sustained mydriasis, which can increase the risk for eye injury in those with elevated intraocular pressure or glaucoma. Like all other antidepressants, venlafaxine may increase the risk for suicide, especially in children and young adults. Symptoms, which can be managed with supportive care, generally abate within a few days. Symptoms include anxiety, agitation, tremors, headache, vertigo, nausea, tachycardia, and tinnitus.
However cheap 20 mg vastarel with mastercard, atropine should not be employed routinely because the drug can mask the early signs (e order generic vastarel on line. Dosage determination is accomplished by administering a small initial dose followed by additional small doses until an optimal level of muscle function has been achieved discount vastarel 20 mg mastercard. Important signs of improvement include increased ease of swallowing and increased ability to raise the eyelids. You can help establish a correct dosage by having the patient or family keep records of (1) times of drug administration, (2) times at which fatigue occurs, (3) the state of muscle strength before and after drug administration, and (4) signs of excessive muscarinic stimulation. To maintain optimal responses, patients must occasionally modify dosage themselves. To do this, they must be taught to recognize signs of undermedication (ptosis, difficulty in swallowing) and signs of overmedication (excessive salivation and other muscarinic responses). For example, they may find it necessary to take supplementary medication 30 to 60 minutes before activities such as eating or shopping. Left untreated, myasthenic crisis can result in death from paralysis of the muscles of respiration. As noted previously, overdose with a cholinesterase inhibitor can produce cholinergic crisis. Like myasthenic crisis, cholinergic crisis is characterized by extreme muscle weakness or frank paralysis. In addition, cholinergic crisis is accompanied by signs of excessive muscarinic stimulation. The offending cholinesterase inhibitor should be withheld until muscle strength has returned. Because myasthenic crisis and cholinergic crisis share similar symptoms (muscle weakness or paralysis), but are treated very differently, it is essential to distinguish between them. A history of medication use or signs of excessive muscarinic stimulation are usually sufficient to permit a differential diagnosis. If these clues are inadequate, the provider may elect to administer a challenging dose of edrophonium, an ultrashort-acting cholinesterase inhibitor. If edrophonium-induced elevation of acetylcholine levels alleviates symptoms, the crisis is myasthenic. Because the symptoms of cholinergic crisis will be made even worse by edrophonium and could be life-threatening, atropine and oxygen should be immediately available whenever edrophonium is used for this test. Toxicology of Muscarinic Agonists Sources of Muscarinic Poisoning Muscarinic poisoning can result from ingestion of certain mushrooms (e. Symptoms Manifestations of muscarinic poisoning result from excessive activation of muscarinic receptors. Prominent symptoms are (1) respiratory (bronchospasm and excessive bronchial secretions); (2) cardiovascular (bradycardia and hypotension); (3) gastrointestinal (profuse salivation, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence); (4) genitourinary (excessive urination and urinary incontinence); integumentary (diaphoresis); and visual (lacrimation and miosis). Some common mnemonics can help you to identify this potentially dangerous condition. Mnemonic 1: Dumbels Diaphoresis/Diarrhea Urination Miosis Bradycardia/Bronchospasm/Bronchorrhea Emesis Lacrimation Salivation Mnemonic 2: Sludge and the Killer Bs Salivation Lacrimation Urination Diaphoresis/Diarrhea Gastrointestinal cramping Emesis Bradycardia Bronchospasm Bronchorrhea Treatment Management is direct and specific: administer atropine (a selective muscarinic blocking agent) and provide supportive therapy. By blocking access of muscarinic agonists to their receptors, atropine can reverse most signs of toxicity. Muscarinic Antagonists (Anticholinergic Drugs) Muscarinic antagonists competitively block the actions of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Because most muscarinic receptors are located on structures innervated by parasympathetic nerves, the muscarinic antagonists are also known as parasympatholytic drugs. Additional names for these agents are antimuscarinic drugs, muscarinic blockers, and anticholinergic drugs. This term is unfortunate in that it implies blockade at all cholinergic receptors. However, as normally used, the term anticholinergic only denotes blockade of muscarinic receptors. Therefore, when a drug is characterized as being anticholinergic, you can take this to mean that it produces selective muscarinic blockade—and not blockade of all cholinergic receptors. In this chapter, the terms muscarinic antagonist and anticholinergic agent are used interchangeably. Atropine Atropine [AtroPen, others] is the best-known muscarinic antagonist and will serve as our prototype for the group. Mechanism of Action Atropine produces its effects through competitive blockade at muscarinic receptors. Rather, all responses to atropine result from preventing receptor activation by endogenous acetylcholine (or by drugs that act as muscarinic agonists). At therapeutic doses, atropine produces selective blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. However, if the dosage is sufficiently high, the drug will produce some blockade of nicotinic receptors, too. Pharmacologic Effects Because atropine acts by causing muscarinic receptor blockade, its effects are opposite to those caused by muscarinic activation. Accordingly, we can readily predict the effects of atropine by knowing the normal responses to muscarinic receptor activation (see Table 11. Like the muscarinic agonists, the muscarinic antagonists exert their influence primarily on the heart, exocrine glands, smooth muscles, and eyes. Because activation of cardiac muscarinic receptors decreases heart rate, blockade of these receptors will cause heart rate to increase. Atropine decreases secretion from salivary glands, bronchial glands, sweat glands, and the acid-secreting cells of the stomach. Note that these effects are opposite to those of muscarinic agonists, which increase secretion from exocrine glands. Blockade of muscarinic receptors on the iris sphincter causes mydriasis (dilation of the pupil). Blockade of muscarinic receptors on the ciliary muscle produces cycloplegia (relaxation of the ciliary muscle), thereby focusing the lens for far vision. It is important to note that not all muscarinic receptors are equally sensitive to blockade by atropine and most other anticholinergic drugs: at some sites, muscarinic receptors can be blocked with relatively low doses; whereas at other sites, much higher doses are needed. As a result, atropine and most other muscarinic antagonists are not very desirable for treating peptic ulcer disease or asthma. Differences in receptor sensitivity to muscarinic blockers are of clinical significance. Accordingly, if we want to use atropine to treat peptic ulcer disease (by suppressing gastric acid secretion) or asthma (by dilating the bronchi), we cannot do so without also affecting the heart, exocrine glands, many smooth muscles, and the eyes. Because of these obligatory side effects, atropine and most other muscarinic antagonists are not preferred drugs for treating peptic ulcers or asthma. Procedures that stimulate baroreceptors of the carotid body can initiate reflex slowing of the heart, resulting in profound bradycardia.
The grand-mult ipa- rous patient with the placenta implanted in the fundus (top of uterus) is at particu- lar risk for ut erine inversion discount vastarel 20mg overnight delivery. If the placenta has already separated purchase vastarel 20 mg visa, the recently inverted uterus may somet imes be replaced by using the gloved palm and cupped fingers buy 20mg vastarel amex. Two int rave- nous lines should be started as soon as possible and preferably prior to placental separat ion, since profuse hemorrhage may follow placental removal. Terbutaline or magnesium sulfate can also be utilized to relax the uterus if necessary prior to uter- ine replacement. Upon replacing t he ut erine fundus t o t he normal locat ion, the relaxation agents are stopped, and then uterotonic agents, such as oxytocin, are given t o pr event r e-inver sion an d also t o slow d own the bleedin g. P lacem ent of the clin ician’s fist in sid e the ut er u s t o maint ain the n or mal st r u ct u r e of the ut er u s may help to prevent re-inversion. Note: Even with optimal treatment of uterine inversion, hemorrhage is almost a cert aint y. In several studies, active management slightly reduces the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage, probably due to early use of utero- tonic agents (usually after delivery of the baby’s anterior shoulder). Proponents of physiologic management of labor argue that there is less risk of entrapment of a retained placenta (due to difficulty with manual separation when uterotonic agents are given), and less chance of uterine inversion. Upon delivery of the placenta, there was noted to be an inverted uterus, which was successfully managed including replacement of the uterus. Which of the following placental implantation sites would most likely predis- pose to an inverted uterus? Aft er the deliver y, the placent a does n ot deliver even aft er 30 minut es. Delivery of the placenta is complicated by an inverted uterus, with subsequent hemorrhage leading t o 1500 mL of blood loss. W hich of t he following is t he best explana- tion of the mechanism of hemorrhage? Inverted uterus stretches the uterus, causing trauma to blood vessels lead- ing t o bleeding. I n ver t ed u t er u s lead s t o in ab ilit y fo r an ad eq u at e m yo m et r ial co n t r act io n effect. Inverted uterus causes a local coagulopathy reaction to the uterus and endomet rium. T h e physician attempts to replace the uterus, but the cervix is tightly contracted, preventing the fundus of the uterus from being repositioned. If the obstetrician wishes to optimize outcome for the infant, the cord should be clamped: A. A placent a implant ed in eit her t he anterior, post erior, lat eral, or lower segment of t he uterus does not have the direct angle that a fundally implanted placenta has through the cervix and out the vagina. The best method for preventing inver- sion is t o await spont aneous separat ion of t he placent a from t he ut erus before placing traction on the umbilical cord. Aft er 30 m in u t es, the p lacen t a is abn or m ally r et ain ed, an d a m an u al ext r ac- tion is generally attempted. Waiting for another 30 minutes may lead to mater- nal hemorrhage, which may then lead to an indication for a hysterectomy. However, a hysterectomy would not be the initial step after 30 minutes have passed during the third st age of labor. O xytocin should not be administered until the placenta has been delivered and the uterine fundus (when inverted) is placed back to it s normal locat ion. O xyt ocin is a ut erot onic agent t hat aids in allowing the ut erus t o cont ract down on it self in an effort t o stop bleeding after the placent a has been removed. Intravaginal estrogen is not indicated for this scenario and is typically prescribed to patients with vaginal atrophy. An in ver t ed u t er u s m ak es it im p o ssib le fo r the u t er u s t o est ab lish it s n o r m al tone, and to contract. Thus, the myometrial fibers do not exert their normal tourniquet effect on the spiral arteries. The endometrial placental bed pours out blood, which previously had been perfusing the intervillous space. Replacing the uterus to its normal position and assisting tonicity of the uterus will allevi- ate t he bleeding. A uterine relaxing agent (such as halothane anesthesia) is the best initial therapy for a nonreducible uterus. Terbutaline and magnesium sulfate can also be used to relax the uterus if necessary. Oxytocin is a uterotonic agent and may be used following replacement of the uterine fundus to its normal loca- tion. Dührssen incisions are used to treat the entrapped fetal head of a breech vagin al d eliver y an d wo u ld n o t b e in d icat ed fo r u t er in e in ver sio n. A vagin al hysterectomy would not be the best treatment option for this patient either. Delayed cord clamping of between 30 and 60 seconds is beneficial for pre- term infants due to increasing total iron stores and hemoglobin levels, and decreasing the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in the infants. Immedi- ate birth outcomes such as Apgar scores, umbilical cord pH, or respiratory distress is unaffected by the timing of cord clamping. Delayed cord clamping also improves iron st ores in t erm infant s, but may also lead t o a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia. P o s t p a r t u m h e m o r r h a g e, a b n o r m a l l y a d h e r e n t p l a c e n t a, u t e r i n e i n v e r s i o n, a n d puerperal hematomas. After a 4-hour first stage of labor and a 2-hour second stage of la b o r, the fe t a l h e a d d e live rs b u t is n o t e d t o b e re t ra ct e d b a ck t o wa rd the p a t ie n t ’s in t ro it u s. Th e fe t a l sh o u ld e rs d o n o t d e live r, e ve n wit h m a t e rn a l p u sh in g. After a 4-hour first stage of labor and a 2-hour second st age of labor, the head delivers but the shoulders do not easily deliver. Next step in management: McRobert s maneuver (hyperflexion of t he mat ernal hips onto the maternal abdomen and/ or suprapubic pressure). Li kely co mplicat io n: A likely maternal complication is postpartum hemor- rhage; a common neonatal complication is a brachial plexus injury such as an Erb palsy. Maternal condition: Gestational diabetes, which increases the fetal weight on the shoulders and abdomen. Understand that shoulder dystocia is an obstetric emergency, and be familiar with the init ial maneuvers used to manage this condition. Considerations The patient is multiparous and obese, both of which are risk factors although not the strongest risk factors, for shoulder dystocia. The prenatal risk factors in order of significance are (1) prior shoulder dystocia, (2) fet al macrosomia, and (3) maternal gestational diabetes. The patient is post-term at 42 weeks, which increases the likelihood of fet al macrosomia. T h e pat ient ’s prolonged secon d st age of labor (upper limit s for a multiparous patient is 1 hour without and 2 hours with epidural analgesia) may be a nonspecific indicator of impending shoulder dyst ocia.