By N. Kadok. Roosevelt University. 2019.
They wanted me to consider chemotherapy metformin 500mg free shipping, radiation or surgery but I refused and signed myself out of the hospital generic 500mg metformin amex. Needless to say I am still here after two years even though my parents were informed I had only four months to live after the diagnosis 500 mg metformin with visa. I also suffered from migraine headaches since I was eight years old and it was very common for me to take a bottle of Excedrin with me everywhere I went. I had also developed a severe weight problem over the years and had gotten up to almost 200 pounds. I started taking [this fluid] and four and a half months later I weighed 130 pounds. But I decided to try the therapy topically on my vicious case of */ringworm and not only did the ringworm condition totally disappear after a few weeks, but the dry, cracked and painful skin all around my toes and foot had totally changed. The mouth ulcers and genital herpes that used to plague me have not returned even once. This agent has been proven to heal serious wounds and burns without scarring and is one of the most extraordinary natural skin moisturizers available. After nearly 100 years of modern study, medical researchers, in reference to this fluid and its components, report these findings: In clinical studies using an extract of this fluid on cancer patients, most patients in the study showed remarkable improvement after only one week of treatment and continued treatment produced a reduction in tumor size and normalization of biochemical tests with-out toxic or dangerous side effects. Burzynski Physiology, Chemistry & Physics, 1977 It surprisingly and easily kills viruses. In strong concentration, it not only weakens viruses such as polio and rabies, but actually destroys them. Noble Division of Infectious Disease University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 1987 16 It is capable of controlling a wide range of food, environmental and chemical allergies. Wilson Department of Geriatric Medicine Law Hospital, Scotland, 1983 It is capable of killing or stopping the growth of the bacteria that causes tuberculosis. Its use is indicated in the treatment of excess pressure on the brain and eyes, inoperable brain tumors, skull fractures, and cerebral contusions. Further trials of this substance are warranted in the treatment of chronic glaucoma, hydrocephalus, delirium tremens, premenstrual edema, meningitis and epilepsy. Dunne Medical Advisor to the Irish Allergy Treatment and Research Association Oxford Medical Symposium, 1981 Certain fractions of this substance have an inhibitory action on the growth of malignant tumors in mice. If the body really does produce such an amazing substance, and doctors and scientists have used it to heal people, where are the news reports, the accolades, the commercials, the media hype? Let go of your initial disbelief and preconceptions and get ready for the best-kept secret in medical history. This extraordinary miracle medicine that numerous doctors, researchers and hundreds of people have used for healing is human urine. As medical researchers have discovered: "Urine is the main component of the amniotic fluid that bathes the human fetus. If the urinary tract is blocked, the fetus does not produce the fluid, and without it, the lungs do not develop. To the vast majority of mankind, urine is nothing more than a somewhat repugnant "waste" that the body has to excrete in order to function. As a matter of fact, you probably have no idea what urine is or how your body makes it. In reality, urine is not, as most of us believe, the excess water from food and liquids that goes through the intestines and is ejected from the body. These molecules are absorbed into tiny tubules in the intestinal wall and then pass through these tubes into the bloodstream. The blood circulates throughout your body carrying these food molecules and other nutrients, along with critical immune defense and regulating elements such as red and white blood cells, antibodies, plasma, microscopic proteins, hormones, enzymes, etc. The blood continually distributes its load of life-sustaining elements throughout the body, nourishing every cell and protecting the body from disease. As it flows through the body, this nutrient-filled blood passes through the liver where toxins are removed and later excreted from the body in the form of solid waste. When the blood enters the kidneys it is filtered through an immensely complex and intricate system of minute tubules called nephron through which the blood is literally "squeezed" at high pressure. This filtering process removes excess amounts of water, salts and other elements in the blood that your body does not need at the time. Many of the constituents of this filtered watery solution, or urine, are then reabsorbed by the nephron and delivered back into the bloodstream. The remainder of the urine passes out of the kidneys into the bladder and is then excreted from the body. The kidneys do not filter out important elements in the blood because those elements in themselves are toxic or poisonous or bad for the body, but simply because the body did not need that particular concentration of that element at the time it was excreted. As medical research has revealed: "One of the most important functions of the kidney is to excrete material and substances for which the body has no immediate need. But both elements could be lethal if there were too much water or sodium in your blood. These nutritional elements are extremely valuable substances to the body, certainly not toxic, and yet the kidney excretes these elements into the urine - why? Actually, it is this regulating 21 process of the kidneys and the excretion of urine that allows us to eat and drink more than our bodies need at any one time. Scientists have discovered that urine, because it is actually extracted from our blood, contains small amounts of almost all of the life-sustaining nutrients, proteins, hormones, antibodies and immunizing agents that our blood contains: "Urine can be regarded as one of the most complex of all body fluids. Urine is known to contain minute amounts of proteins made by the body, including medically important ones such as growth hormone and insulin. This summer, Enzymes of America plans to market its first major urine product called urokinase, an enzyme that dissolves blood clots and is used to treat victims of heart attacks. The company has contracts to supply the urine enzyme to Sandoz, Merrell Dow and other major pharmaceutical companies. When the president of Porta-John began consulting with scientists about a urine filtration system, one told him he was sitting on a gold mine. From 26 collection centers the urine is sent to Rome, where Ares-Serono technicians then isolate the ovulation-enhancing hormone. Obviously, most of us are operating under a gross misconception when we wrinkle our nose at the thought of using urine in medicine. Like any other substance in the body, too much urea can be harmful, but urea in and of itself is enormously valuable and indispensable to body functioning. Not only does urea provide invaluable nitrogen to the body, but research has shown that urea actually aids in the synthesis of protein, or in other words, it helps our bodies use protein more efficiently. Urea has also been proven to be an extraordinary antibacterial and anti-viral agent, and is one of the best natural diuretics ever discovered. These are a few more examples of commercial medical applications of urine and urea in use today: Ureaphil: diuretic made from urea 24 Urofollitropin: urine-extract fertility drug PureaSkin: urea cream for skin problems Amino-Cerv: urea cream used for cervical treatments Premarin: urine-extract estrogen supplement Panafil: urea/papain ointment for skin ulcers, burns and infected wounds Urea was discovered and isolated as long ago as 1773 and is currently marketed in a variety of different drug forms.
Finally purchase metformin 500mg without a prescription, evolutionary explanations of disease are important because patients often want to know why they have the diseases they have cheap metformin on line. In the absence of evolutionary explanations 500 mg metformin mastercard, they may fall back on unhelpful folk beliefs, such as the idea that their diseases are punishment for sinful behavior (Bynum 2008). Why Our Evolutionary Heritage Has Left Us Vulnerable to Disease Many diseases cause premature death (death before the end of the reproductive and child-raising periods) or reduced fertility. But most diseases do not affect all members of a population or do not affect everyone to the same degree. Rather, individuals exhibit variation in resistance or response to diseases, just as they exhibit variation in virtually all other traits. At least some of this variation is due to genetic or heritable variation in the population. Heritable variations in resis- tance to these diseases represent variations in fitness; individuals who survive and remain fertile in the face of a disease will on average produce and raise more children than will people who die from or become infertile as a result of the dis- ease. As a disease spreads through a population, natural selection will increase the frequency of alleles that are associated with resistance to it. The alleles associated with resistance to malaria are classic examples of this process. Despite selection for disease resistance throughout our evolutionary history, however, natural selection has clearly not eliminated disease. Evolutionary med- icine helps us understand the limits as well as the power of natural selection in shaping human biology and the reasons—the ultimate causes—for our contin- ued vulnerability or susceptibility to disease. Broadly speaking, there are several important limits to natural selection that contribute to the persistence of disease (Nesse 2005; Perlman 2005). First, there are limitations intrinsic to the process of evolution by natural selection itself. Diseases that cause premature death or reduced fertility will select for and increase the frequency of alleles that are associated with disease resistance. New alleles can enter populations either by mutation or by gene flow from other populations of the same species. Once these alleles enter a popula- tion, their fate is determined by genetic drift (changes in allele frequency due to random sampling in the transmission of alleles from one generation to the next) as well as by natural selection. These other evolutionary processes may counter- act the effects of selection by introducing or increasing the frequency of alleles spring 2013 • volume 56, number 2 179 Robert L. For these and other genetic reasons, ben- eficial alleles—specifically, alleles associated with disease resistance or a decreased risk of disease—may not spread or become fixed in a population. Natural selection increases the frequency of traits that enhance reproductive fitness. If diseases do not decrease reproductive success, there will not be selection for resistance to them. Diseases of aging—diseases that increase in prevalence after the end of our reproductive and child-raising years—are one class of diseases that may not significantly decrease fitness. Evolutionary life his- tory theory and the evolutionary theory of aging provide a framework for understanding and, possibly, postponing these diseases. Even when selection is intense, allele fre- quencies in populations change only gradually over many generations. The other species with which we interact, and especially the pathogens or parasites that infect us and cause disease, constitute an important and rapidly changing component of our environment. Just as our evolutionary ancestors evolved and we are continuing to evolve in- creased resistance to our pathogens, these pathogens have evolved and are evolv- ing to overcome this resistance and to grow in and be transmitted among us. This process of host-pathogen coevolution helps to rationalize the natural histories of infectious diseases and to explain why some infections are relatively benign while others are virulent. Understanding pathogen evolution and host-pathogen coevolution may suggest strategies for slowing the spread of antibiotic resistance and for reducing the virulence of infectious diseases. The human environment is strongly influenced by cultural beliefs, practices, and artifacts, all of which are subject to rapid change. Disease may result from an inability of natural selection to keep pace with a changing cultural environ- ment—in other words, from a mismatch between the environment in which we now live and the genes we have inherited from our evolutionary ancestors, genes that enabled these ancestors to survive and reproduce in the various environ- ments in which they lived. The increasing prevalence of obesity and hyperten- sion exemplifies the principle that genes that enhanced the fitness of our ances- tors may now increase our risk of disease. In brief, macroevolu- tion constrains microevolution (Stearns,Allal, and Mace 2008). Our macroevolu- tionary history has left us with complex and highly interdependent developmen- tal pathways. Many of our anatomical peculiarities, such as the placement of our trachea in front of our esophagus, which leaves us vulnerable to choking, can be understood as the result of our evolutionary history—in this case, our history as aquatic organisms whose respiration depended on gills rather than lungs. The de- velopment of our respiratory and gastrointestinal systems is now so deeply embed- 180 Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Evolution and Medicine ded in the whole of our development that mutations that might have led to a safer anatomic design would almost certainly have been lethal (Held 2009). Moreover, because of our complex internal organization and our complex interactions with the external world, virtually every gene has multiple phenotypic consequences. Evolution frequently involves tradeoffs or compromises, such that natural selec- tion leads to suites of traits that are not perfect or ideal, but work well enough for survival and reproduction, and are better than the available alternatives. Finally, despite natural selection, survival and reproduction may be con- strained by limitations of environmental resources, in the way originally envi- sioned by Malthus. Availability of nutritional resources is thought to have played a major role in evolution ,and nutritional deficiencies are still important causes of disease and death. Understanding the evolutionary reasons for our susceptibility to disease com- plements the traditional biomedical understanding of the etiology and patho- genesis of disease. Together, these two perspectives on health and disease, the ulti- mate and the proximate causes of disease, can help us understand why we get sick as well as how we get sick, and may provide insights into interventions that might reduce the burden of disease. The distribution of the sickle-cell trait in East Africa and elsewhere, and its apparent relationship to the incidence of subtertian malaria. Darwin and the doctors: Evolution, diathesis, and germs in 19th-cen- tury Britain. Medical education in the United States and Canada:A report to the Carnegie Foundation for the advancement of teaching. Cause and effect in biology revisited: Is Mayr’s proximate-ulti- mate dichotomy still useful? Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase defi- cient red cells: Resistance to infection by malarial parasites. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the information contained therein. More information on the European Union is available on the internet (http://europa. It is a new paradigm in medicine based on the smart use of technology, coupled with greater participation by patients in the management of their own health, to help prevent disease and promote healthy living.
A similar study at ology and anatomic pathology probably range from 2% to Hershey Medical Center in Pennsylvania identiﬁed a 5 500 mg metformin sale. The typically low error rates in these specialties should not be expected in those practices in tissues from the female reproductive tract and 10% in and institutions that allow x-rays to be read by frontline cancer patients purchase metformin with american express. Certain tissues are notoriously difﬁcult buy generic metformin 500mg online; for clinicians who are not trained radiologists. For example, in example, discordance rates range from 20% to 25% for 21,22 a study of x-rays interpreted by emergency department lymphomas and sarcomas. A study of admissions to dance rate in practice seems to be 5% in most British hospitals reported that 6% of the admitting diag- 25,26 cases. The emergency department requires Mammography has attracted the most attention in re- complex decision making in settings of above-average un- gard to diagnostic error in radiology. The rate of diagnostic error in this arena variability from one radiologist to another in the ability to 14,15 ranges from 0. A recent study of breast cancer found that the nostic error in clinical medicine was approximately 15%. In diagnosis was inappropriately delayed in 9%, and a third this section, we review data from a wide variety of sources 29 of these reﬂected misreading of the mammogram. Several studies have ex- frequently recommending biopsies for what turn out to be amined changes in diagnosis after a second opinion. Given the differences regarding insurance 17 coverage and the medical malpractice systems between and associates, using telemedicine consultations with spe- cialists in a variety of ﬁelds, found a 5% change in diagno- the United States and the United Kingdom, it is not sis. There is a wealth of information in the perceptual surprising that women in the United States are twice as specialties using second opinions to judge the rate of diag- likely as women in the United Kingdom to have a neg- 30 nostic error. It is important to emphasize that only a fraction of the 18,27,31–46 studies that have measured the rate of diagnos- discordance in these studies was found to cause harm. An unsettling consistency emerges: the frequency of diagnostic error is disappoint- Dermatology. For exam- tions and disorders where rapid and accurate diagnosis is ple, in a study of 5,136 biopsies, a major change in diag- essential, such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary em- nosis was encountered in 11% on second review. Of6 at ien t w ho died o fp ulm o n ar y em b o li m , he diagn o s i w as n o t us ect ed clin ically in L eder le et al( up ur ed ao r ic an eur ys m eview o fallcas es at a in gle m edicalcen t er o ver a yr er io d. Of2 cas es in vo lvin g ab do m in alan eur ys m s vo n o do li ch et al diagn o s i o fr up ur ed an eur ys m w as in iially m i ed in in at ien t es en t in g w ih ches ain , ( diagn o s i o fdi ect in g an eur ys m o ft he p o xim alao r a w as m i ed in o fcas es E dlo w Sub ar achn o id hem o r hage Up dat ed eview o fp ub li hed udies o n ub ar achn o id hem o r hage: ar e m i diagn o s ed o n in iialevaluat io n B ur o n et al( an cer det ect io n ut o p y s udy at a in gle ho s ial o ft he 2 m align an t n eo p las m s fo un d at aut o p y, w er e eiher m i diagn o s ed o r un diagn o s ed, an d in o ft he cas es he caus e o fdeat h w as judged o b e r elat ed o he can cer B eam et al( eas can cer accr edied cen t er agr eed o eview m am m o gr am s o f7 w o m en , o fw ho m had b r eas can cer he can cer w o uld have b een m i ed in M cG in n i et al( elan o m a Seco n d eview o f5 b io p y s am p les diagn o s i chan ged in fo m b en ign o m align an t fo m m align an t o b en ign , an d had a chan ge in um o r gr ade) Per li i o lar di o r der The in iialdiagn o s i w as w r o n g in o fp at ien t w ih b i o lar di o r der an d delays in es ab li hin g he co r ect diagn o s i w er e co m m o n G affet al( en dicii et o s ect ive s udy at ho s ial o fp at ien t w ih ab do m in alp ain an d o p er at io n s fo r ap en dicii Of1 p at ien t w ho had ur ger y, her e w as n o ap en dicii in o f9 at ien t w ih a ﬁn aldiagn o s i o f ap en dicii he diagn o s i w as m i ed o r w r o n g in R aab et al( an cer at ho lo gy The feq uen cy o fer o r in diagn o s in g can cer w as m eas ur ed at ho s ial o ver a yr er io d. The autopsy has been described as “the What Percentage of Adverse Events is 47 most powerful tool in the history of medicine” and the Attributable to Diagnostic Errors and What “gold standard” for detecting diagnostic errors. Richard Percentage of Diagnostic Errors Leads to Cabot correlated case records with autopsy ﬁndings in Adverse Events? In the Harvard Medical Practice Study of tween clinical and autopsy diagnoses were found in a 30,195 hospital records, diagnostic errors accounted for more recent study of geriatric patients in the Nether- 58,59 50 17% of adverse events. On average, 10% of autopsies revealed that the study of 15,000 records from Colorado and Utah reported clinical diagnosis was wrong, and 25% revealed a new that diagnostic errors contributed to 6. Using the same methodology, the Canadian a fraction of these discrepancies reﬂected incidental ﬁnd- Adverse Events Study found that 10. The Qual- crepancies that potentially could have changed the out- ity in Australian Health Care Study identiﬁed 2,351 ad- come were found in approximately 10% of all verse events related to hospitalization, of which 20% 32,51 autopsies. A large study in New Zealand examined 6,579 cause the diagnostic error rate is almost certainly lower inpatient medical records from admissions in 1998 and among patients with the condition who are still alive, found that diagnostic errors accounted for 8% of adverse 63 error rates measured solely from autopsy data may be events; 11. That is, clinicians are attempting to make the diagnosis among living patients before death, so the more Error Databases. Although of limited use in quantifying relevant statistic in this setting is the sensitivity of clin- the absolute incidence of diagnostic errors, voluntary error- ical diagnosis. For example, whereas autopsy studies reporting systems provide insight into the relative incidence suggest that fatal pulmonary embolism is misdiagnosed of diagnostic errors compared with medication errors, treat- approximately 55% of the time (see Table 1), the misdi- ment errors, and other major categories. Out of 805 volun- agnosis rate for all cases of pulmonary embolism is only tary reports of medical errors from 324 Australian physi- 32 cians, there were 275 diagnostic errors (34%) submitted 4%. Shojania and associates argue that a large discrep- 64 ancy also exists regarding the misdiagnosis rate for myo- over a 20-month period. Compared with medication and treatment errors, diagnostic errors were judged to have cardial infarction: although autopsy data suggest roughly caused the most harm, but were the least preventable. A 20% of these events are missed, data from the clinical smaller study reported a 14% relative incidence of diagnos- setting (patients presenting with chest pain or other rel- tic errors from Australian physicians and 12% from physi- evant symptoms) indicate that only 2% to 4% are missed. Mandatory error-reporting sys- tems that rely on self-reporting typically yield fewer error reports than are found using other methodologies. One method of test- ample, only 9 diagnostic errors were reported out of almost ing diagnostic accuracy is to control for variations in case 1 million ambulatory visits over a 5. One such Diagnostic errors are the most common adverse event approach is to incorporate what are termed standardized 67,68 reported by medical trainees. Other studies using different majority of claims ﬁled reﬂect a very small subset of diag- types of standardized cases have found that not only is noses. For example, 93% of claims in the Australian registry there variation between providers who analyze the same reﬂect just 6 scenarios (failure to diagnose cancer, injuries 27,56 case but that physicians can even disagree with them- after trauma, surgical problems, infections, heart attacks, selves when presented again with a case they have pre- 73 and venous thromboembolic disease). As hand, given the fragmentation of care in the outpatient 75 76 77 Schiff, Redelmeier, and Gandhi and colleagues advo- setting, the difﬁculty of tracking patients, and the amount of cate, much better methods for tracking and follow-up of time it often takes for a clear picture of the disease to patients are needed. For some authors, diagnostic errors that emerge, these data may actually underestimate the extent of 82 do not result in serious harm are not even considered mis- error, especially in ambulatory settings. This is little consolation, however, for the act frequency may be difﬁcult to determine precisely, it is patients who suffer the consequences of these mistakes. The clear that an extensive and ever-growing literature conﬁrms increasing adoption of electronic medical records, espe- that diagnostic errors exist at nontrivial and sometimes cially in ambulatory practices, will lead to better data for alarming rates. These studies span every specialty and vir- answering this question; research should be conducted to tually every dimension of both inpatient and outpatient care. We don’t the many advances in medical imaging and diagnostic test- need an autopsy to ﬁnd out. Although the autopsy rate 78 decreased over these years from 88% to 36%, the misdiag- As Kirch and Schaﬁi note, autopsies not only docu- 78 ment the presence of diagnostic errors, they also provide an nosis rate was stable. The rate of autopsy ably reﬂects 2 factors that offset each other: diagnostic in the United States is not measured any more, but is widely accuracy actually has improved over time (more knowl- assumed to be signiﬁcantly 10%. To the extent that this edge, better tests, more skills), but as the autopsy rate important feedback mechanism is no longer a realistic op- declines, there is a tendency to select only the more chal- tion, clinicians have an increasingly distorted view of their lenging clinical cases for autopsy, which then have a higher own error rates. A longitudinal study of au- above quote by Gawande indicates, physician overconﬁ- topsies in Switzerland (constant 90% autopsy rate) supports dence may prevent them from taking advantage of these that the absolute rate of diagnostic errors is, as suggested, important lessons. In this section, we review studies related 81 to physician overconﬁdence and explore the possibility that decreasing over time. Overconﬁdence may have both attitudinal as well as cog- Summary nitive components and should be distinguished from com- In aggregate, studies consistently demonstrate a rate of placency. For example, noncompliance with clinical guidelines relates to the soci- the evidence discussed above—that autopsies are on the ology of what it means to be a professional. Being a pro- decline despite their providing useful data—inferentially fessional connotes possessing expert knowledge in an area provides support for the conclusion that physicians do not and functioning relatively autonomously. Substantially more Tanenbaum worries that evidence-based medicine will data are available on a similar line of evidence, namely, the decrease the “professionalism” of the physician. Research shows that phy- side to professionalism, the converse, a pervasive attitude of sicians admit to having many questions that could be im- overconﬁdence, is certainly a possible explanation for the portant at the point of care, but which they do not pur- 105 87–89 frequent overrides.
Pre-prepared homeopathic urea can also be purchased cheap 500 mg metformin free shipping, although this would contain only urea and none of the antibodies or immune factors of a whole urine homeopathic preparation discount metformin. The traditional book for selecting and using homeopathic medicines is referred to as the Materia Medica metformin 500 mg on-line, which contains a listing of the remedies and Lndications for their use. To 5 mis (1/6 of an ounce) of distilled water in a sterile bottle add one drop of fresh urine. Place three drops under the tongue hourly until there is obvious improvement or temporary exacerbation of symptoms. For beginners who feel unsure about how to use homeopathy, the best book I have found as an overall introduction to self-care through home-opathy is The Fanfily Guide to Homeopathy, Symptoms and Natural Solutions, by Dr. This book is an extraordinary adjunct to urine therapy and contains helpful material about a wide range of disorders that I have never found anywhere else. When using homeopathy, you have a choice of two different dilutions referred to as "x " potencies or "c " potencies. I have found that the c potencies are excellent for home use, as their effect seems more pronounced than the commercial preparations; many homeopathic doctors also prefer the “c” potencies. Combining homeopathy with urine therapy was, for me, incredibly effective for a wide variety of serious disorders as well as for mild disorders such as headaches, colds, indigestion, etc. External Use Skin Applications Applying urine to the skin is an excellent treatment for every 200 imaginable type of skin disorder including all rashes, eczema, psoriasis, acne, etc. The urea in urine, as the research studies demonstrated, is also excellent for cosmetic use as an overall skin beautifier and moisturizer. Use either fresh or old urine for skin applications, although old urine has a higher ammonia content and has been found to be more effective in treating many stubborn skin disorders such as eczema or psoriasis. Discard the pad and saturate another clean pad with fresh urine and reapply, lightly patting and soaking the affected area. Continue reapplying in this manner for 5-10 minutes or as many times as desired - the more that the affected area is treated, the better. Secure a clean soaked pad to the affected area with a gauze or cotton ~vrap and leave secured for several hours for additional healing. These urine packs are also incredibly effective for any type of insect sting, bite or poison oak or ivy. Another method is to pour old or fresh urine into clean, plastic spray bottle and spray the rash, eczema, etc. Skin Massages Always augment your use of oral urine therapy with skin massages particuJariy on the face, neck and feet John Armstrong recommended this practice especially when fasting for an acute condition, and people who use it, swear by it. These massages have a tonifying, refreshing, relaxing effect and are said to allow for gradual absorption of urine nutrients through the skin. Pour either old or fresh urine into a wide, shallow container and dip your hands into the liquid. Shake off excess, then vigorously massage into a small area of skin anywhere on the body until hands and skin are dry. Rewet hands and begin massaging another area until dry; repeat this step until all skin areas have been well massaged. If your own urine is dark, turbid or abnormal looking, wait until you have used the urine internally over the course of two or three days, at which time the urine usually appears clear and can then be used for massages. Urine from a normal healthy person other than yourself may also be used for your external massage. If you are a heavy smoker, or are taking therapeutic or recreational drugs, do not use your own urine externally or internally (or use only extremely small amounts). For cosmetic use or moisturizing, pour a very small amount of nor mal fresh urine or urme which has been stored, for a day or two into your hand and massage lightly into the skin until dry; then pour additional urine into your hand, massage it into another area of the skin until dry and so on. Also, you can add a few drops of urine to a small amount of your moisturizing cream each time you apply the cream. As the research studies show, urea replenishes the water content of the skin because it binds hydrogen and attracts moisture to the skin in a way that no mineral oil or glycerin-based lotions or creams can. Old dead skin immediately flakes away, and your skin becomes wonderfully soft, rosy and with time, even wrinkles will disappear. Soak gauze bandages or cotton balls m fresh or old urine and place them over the affected areas. Cover the urine pack with light plastic (like Saran-wrap) and tie in place with gauze strips. Try to keep the pack on as long as possible, especially with more, severe conditions. Add additional urine to the pack with a medicine dropper every few hours to keep the pack wet. Bites And Stings Urine packs are tremendously useful and effective for relieving the discomfort of all insect bites and stings. My foot immediately swelled to almost double its size and was unbelievably painhil. I dragged myself into the house, applied a soaked urine pack and tied it in place. Within 15 minutes, the pain had disap-peared and the swelling had lessened considerably. I kept the pack on overnight, and when I removed it in the morning, the swelling and redness had completely disappeared. The pain and irritation of bee stings and mosquito bites is also wonderfully relieved by this method. Follow emergency first-aid instructions to inrise the wound and remove venom, if possible. Then apply fresh normal urine to the wound and secure a well-soaked urine pack over it. Growths And Tumors Armstrong reported in great length on the remarkable effects of urine compresses in reducing and eradicating a wide variety of internal and external tumors, cysts and abnormal growths. Compresses should be used in combination with internal urine therapy for treating any type of abnormal growth. In preparing a compress, use a thick pad of clean white folded cotton material (such as an old T-shirt). Warm the urine by pouring it into a glass container, then place the jar in a container of hot water. While lying down, place wet compress over the affected area and cover with a clean folded towel. Keep the compress applied for as long as possible, reapplying warm urine as needed to keep the compress wet. Urine compresses have also been reported to be effective for many internal disturbances and for arthritic and rheumatic pains. Wounds, Burns And Abrasions As so many research and clinical studies have shown, urea is a tremen-dously effective anti-bacterial agent and an excellent healing treatment for wounds and burns of all types.