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In 1998 purchase macrobid 100 mg otc, Horvath and co-workers (61) published represent a 'prosocial' effect of the drug macrobid 100 mg line. In a double-blind purchase macrobid 100mg, a report that described marked improvement in language placebo-controlled study, 39 subjects with autistic disorder, and social behavior in three children with autistic disorder ages 5 to 19 years old, were given placebo or the NMDA who received secretin as part of a routine diagnostic workup receptor antagonist amantadine (71). No significant difference was found between drug 574 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress and placebo on parent ratings, although clinician-rated mea- viduals with autistic disorder, as well as studies designed to sures of hyperactivity and inappropriate speech showed sta- determine the effects of these drugs on the target symptoms tistically significant improvement. In 'negative' symptoms of schizophrenia can be improved addition, genetic predictors of treatment response, such as with drugs active at the NMDA receptor (72), additional 5-HT transporter protein genotype, should be sought (60). The group II/III meta- reports of putative 'cures' for autistic disorder, such as botropic-glutamate receptor (mGluR II/III) agonists (73) those that surrounded secretin, by conducting controlled and the positive allosteric modulator of -amino-3-hy- studies of such agents. Accepting this responsibility will con- droxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) recep- tribute to ensuring the continued safety of autistic subjects tors, CX516 (Ampakine) (74) may hold promise in this and provide family members with data on which to base regard. Fi- the relative efficacy of atypical antipsychotics, such as risper- nally, exploration of promising novel therapeutic strategies, idone, for autistic disorder (30) may be the suppression of such as those affecting glutamatergic and neuroimmune glutamate release via 5-HT2A antagonism (75). Neuroimmune Modulation Neuroimmunologic dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder (76) and other neuro- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS psychiatric conditions (77). To date, no consistent immu- nologic abnormalities have been found in autistic disorder, This work was supported by an independent investigator although viral and autoimmune hypotheses, among others, award (Seaver Foundation Investigator) from the National have been posited (76). Neurovirologic disease and other Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Depression, the insults to the immune system can lead to increased produc- Theodore and Vada Stanley Research Foundation, a re- tion of catabolites of tryptophan, including quinolinate and search unit on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Contract, no. Thus, neuro- Health, and the State of Indiana Division of Mental Health. McDougle has received research support from Pfizer, inconsistent with altered glutamatergic function, as de- Eli Lilly, and Janssen Pharmaceutica, and has served on scribed above. Controlled studies of agents that have direct effects on immune function, however, have not been conducted in autistic disorder. Such research on neuroim- REFERENCES mune interactions may yield important data on pathophysi- 1. Diagnostic and statistical man- ology, if not etiology, in a subset of autistic subjects. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994. 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Con- Elevated levels of whole blood serotonin (5-hydroxytryp- trolled investigations of mood stabilizers order generic macrobid, including lithium cheap 100mg macrobid otc, tamine proven macrobid 100mg, 5-HT) have long been associated with autistic disor- valproic acid, carbamazepine, and gabapentin, have not der in a large minority of subjects (7). Following reports been reported in well-defined groups of autistic subjects. Despite early enthusiasm generated by PDDs has proven particularly challenging to clinicians and small open-label reports, most controlled studies found no researchers. These symptoms are most prominent in consistent efficacy for fenfluramine as a treatment for autis- younger-aged autistic children. Furthermore, increasing evidence of possi- largely present during a time when educational program- ble neurotoxic effects of the drug on 5-HT neurons in ani- ming and interventions are most critical. The psychostimu- mals and the association of fenfluramine with primary lants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are pulmonary hypertension and (in combination with phenter- effective treatments for these symptoms in individuals with mine) valvular heart disease have eliminated its use as a safe attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In a more studied in heterogeneous groups of children that included recent double-blind crossover study of methylphenidate and autistic subjects. Many of these early investigations suffered placebo, ten autistic children, ages 7 to 11 years, received from the lack of adequate diagnostic methods and nonstan- doses of 10 or 20 mg twice daily for 2 weeks (17). Most of these trials were direct cally significant improvement was seen on the Conners comparisons of two drugs, usually low-potency antipsychot- Teacher Questionnaire (18) and on the hyperactivity factor, ics, and did not include a placebo control. A number of irritability factor, and total score of the Aberrant Behavior these agents were found to be effective for behavioral symp- Checklist (19). Due to significant sedation and adverse cognitive ef- modest. Following completion of the study, it was necessary fects secondary to the low-potency drugs, however, studies to add haloperidol to the treatment regimen of two of the of higher potency conventional antipsychotics were next ten children due to continued symptoms of aggression. The 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine has been shown to be an effective treatment for some individuals with ADHD. Clozapine In a small double-blind, placebo-controlled study of cloni- Clozapine has been shown to be effective for treatment- dine (4 to 10 g per kg daily) in eight children with autistic refractory schizophrenia (27). No significant drug–placebo differences were been only one report to date describing the use of clozapine identified on clinician ratings of videotaped observations, in autistic disorder (28). Adverse effects included hypotension, sedation, hyperactivity or aggression were given clozapine after they and irritability. In contrast, transdermal clonidine (5 g per had not responded to typical antipsychotics. The scarcity of reports ment phase) involving nine males (ages 5 to 33 years) with describing the use of clozapine in autistic disorder might autistic disorder (21). Significant improvement was seen reflect concern regarding the risk of agranulocytosis or sei- on the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) (22), and zures in children or adolescents that are associated with the hyperactivity and anxiety were also reduced. Because autistic individuals typically have an impaired mon adverse effects were sedation and fatigue. No open-label or con- tionally, as mentioned above, many individuals with autistic trolled studies have been published on the use of guanfacine disorder have comorbid seizure disorders. A number of open-label reports describing improvement in Current Drug Treatment Studies aggression, self-injury, ritualistic behavior, irritability, im- pulsivity, hyperactivity, and social relatedness in children, Atypical Antipsychotics adolescents, and adults with autistic disorder have appeared Over the past 5 to 10 years, considerable interest has been (26). Only one controlled study of risperidone, or any atypi- generated by the introduction of the atypical antipsychotics cal antipsychotic for that matter, has been published in indi- (24). These drugs appeared to have potential as a treatment viduals with autistic disorder and related PDDs (30) (Table for autistic disorder for a number of reasons. For subjects completing the study, eight compared with conventional antipsychotics. In addition, (57%) of 14 treated with risperidone [mean standard these drugs were shown to improve both the 'positive' (hal- deviation (SD) dose, 2. The negative symptoms include blunted af- of 16 in the placebo group based on the CGI. Nine (60%) fect, emotional and social withdrawal, lack of interest in of 15 subjects who received open-label risperidone following interpersonal relationships, difficulty in abstract thinking, the double-blind placebo phase responded. Specifically, lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation, and stereo- risperidone was effective for reducing interfering repetitive typed thinking (25). A number of investigators suggested behavior, as well as aggression toward self, others, and prop- that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia were compara- erty. To date, reports have appeared in which clozap- creasing the overall maladaptive behaviors of autistic disor- ine, risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine was used in the der, as measured by the Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating treatment of autistic disorder and other PDDs. The reader Scale overall score (31), this finding was largely accounted 42: Therapeutics of Autistic Disorder 569 TABLE 42. CONTROLLED TRIALS OF CURRENT DRUG TREATMENTS FOR AUTISTIC DISORDER Drug Reference Sample and Design Results Atypical antipsychotics Risperidone McDougle et al. Significant differences be- Olanzapine tween risperidone and placebo were not captured on sub- Three case reports and an open-label case series have de- scales of the Ritvo-Freeman Scale that measure social rela- scribed positive responses to the atypical antipsychotic olan- tionships to people and language. In the case series, six of seven however, clinicians, parents, and other members of the treat- children, adolescents, and adults with autistic disorder and ment teams had the impression that anxiety associated with other PDDs (mean SD age, 20. It may be that the rating scales used to assess social were responders based on the CGI (32). Significant im- relatedness in this study were not sensitive enough to detect provement in overall symptoms of autistic disorder, motor changes in this complex aspect of behavior. Thirteen actions, sensory responses, language usage, self-injurious be- (87%) of 15 subjects randomized to risperidone had at least havior, aggression, irritability or anger, anxiety, and depres- one adverse effect, although this included only mild, tran- sion was observed. Significant changes in repetitive behavior sient sedation in five subjects, compared with five (31%) did not occur for the group. The mean SD dose of of 16 subjects given placebo (agitation in all five cases). The drug was well tolerated, with the most significant risperidone in the treatment of some children and adoles- adverse effects being increased appetite and weight gain in cents with PDDs did not occur to the same degree in this six subjects and sedation in three. Based on these results and other clinical, preclinical, and Quetiapine safety data, the RUPP Autism Network chose risperidone Only one report of quetiapine in the treatment of autistic as the first drug to study in children and adolescents with disorder has been published (33). The mean SD daily dose of quetiapine was 225 ing, hoarding, telling or asking (trend), touching, tapping, 108 mg (range 100 to 350 mg per day). Overall, there or rubbing, and self-damaging or self-mutilating behaviors was no statistically significant improvement for the group were reported significantly more frequently in the autistic as a whole on various behavioral rating scales. Two subjects subjects, whereas cleaning, checking, and counting behav- completed the entire 16-week trial; both were considered iors were less common in the autistic group compared with responders based on CGI scores. The other four subjects dropped out ferential effects when directly compared to drugs that po- due to lack of response and sedation (three subjects), and tently inhibit norepinephrine (NE) uptake support the hy- a possible seizure during the fourth week of treatment (one pothesized importance of 5-HT in the treatment of subject). Other significant side effects included behavioral obsessive-compulsive symptoms (36). Consistent with these activation, increased appetite, and weight gain (range 0. The authors concluded that quetiapine was poorly 5-HT function might contribute to the pathophysiology of tolerated and ineffective in most subjects, although the sam- at least some individuals with OCD (37). More studies of quetiapine in autistic 5-HT function have also been identified in subjects with disorder and related PDDs are needed before definitive con- autistic disorder and other PDDs (38). Based on the efficacy clusions about its effectiveness and safety can be made.
Hypofrontality in schizophrenia: influence of normal- Biol Psychiatry 2000;48:99–109 100 mg macrobid mastercard. Functional magnetic logical issues illustrated in a study of working memory in schizo- resonance imaging in schizophrenia: initial methodology and phrenia buy 100 mg macrobid mastercard. Prefrontal cortex activ- tality and working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia buy macrobid 100mg mastercard. Am ity in people with schizophrenia and control subjects. Br J Psychiatry blood flow change during executive and declarative memory 1998;172:316–323. We thus come to the conclusion that, in dementia praecox, mended as a good introduction that demands only a limited partial damage to, or destruction of, cells of the cerebral cortex background in mathematics and physics. The reader is must probably occur, which may be compensated for in some warned that the following brief exposition is highly (over)- cases, but which mostly brings in its wake a singular, permanent simplified. Essentially, the tissue characteristics sensed by impairment of the inner life (1). MRI depend on disruptions of a strong external magnetic The window on the brain provided by structural imaging field. This external field has aligned the orientation of has transformed our view of schizophrenia to one that views atomic nuclei by aligning the magnetic field of each nucleus the very structure of the brain as altered, a view echoing that is associated with its spin direction. The reader may want to studies), subsequent reports using magnetic resonance imag- think of hydrogen nuclei as analogous to a large set of spin- ing (MRI) have provided key information detailing volume ning tops or gyroscopes. In a state without an external mag- reductions in particular brain anatomic regions of interest netic field, their direction of spin is random, and so is the (ROI). These data have provided the major evidence in net magnetization (a vector), because each rotating proton support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain has a magnetic field that is parallel to its axis of rotation. The resultant population net magnetization can be thought of as vector Section Organization aligned with the z-axis (vertical axis in our example), perpen- The next section is a nontechnical introduction to some of dicular to the x-y plane, and in the direction of the external the basic concepts of MRI, and may be read independently magnetic field. The magnetic field strength is described in of the other sections or skipped by those who wish to con- units of tesla (T) and most current clinical imagers use an centrate on the clinical data. Subsequent sections discuss the external field of 1. There are two main kinds of information about tissue Robert W. McCarley: Harvard Department of Psychiatry, Brockton characteristics derived from this perturbation decay, often VAMC and VA Boston Healthcare System, Brockton, Massachusetts referred to as a 'relaxation. Illustration ofeffectsof appliedmagneticfield onhydrogennuclei (protons,images 1to4). With only a static magnetic field (left arrow) present, all nuclei have the same vertically aligned spin directions parallel to the static magnetic field and the z axis (this state is not illus- trated). Application of an rf pulse 'tilts' the orientation so there is a transverse plane component (broken line) in Image 1. Initially all protons precess uniformly, so that images 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be thought of as successive snapshots (successive moments in time) of the counterclockwise precession (rotation) of the net magnetization vector about the z-axis. Over time the protons dephase and show different precession frequencies; as an illustration of this case, images 1 to 4 should be thought of as a single snapshot of individual protons at the same instant in time. There is no net transverse plane magnetic vector because the individual protons show no uniformity of phase. The T1 relaxation time is the time required for before there is a full return to the vertical orientation, and this vector to return to 63% of its original vertical orienta- subsequent rf pulse repetitions lead to a steady-state orienta- tion value following an rf excitation pulse. This new vector depends on analogy to spinning tops subjected to a tilt, this T1 is the a number of values; two are of particular relevance: the T1 time required to return to about two-thirds of its original relaxation time (how efficiently the protons give up their vertical orientation. Again and again crudely, one can visualize a group of spinning Spatial Localization tops oriented upward (z-axis) and then simultaneously tipped away from this vertical orientation. As everyone who The resonance frequency of protons, the frequency at which has spun tops or played with a gyroscope knows, if one tilts energy is maximally absorbed by protons, is dependent on a top from a vertical orientation, the top will not only tilt the strength of the magnetic field. By applying small mag- but will rotate about the vertical (z-axis), a wobble techni- netic field gradients (typically less than 1% of the total field cally called precessing. In about the z-axis with the same frequency, but gradually they the presence of a magnetic gradient field each proton will will lose their coherence and wobble at different frequencies, resonate at a unique frequency that depends on its exact leading to progressively less net magnetization in the x-y position within the gradient field. T2 is the time required for the coherence to decrease quency and phase map of the protons at each point or pic- to 37% of its original value. This 'dephasing time' or T2 ture element (pixel) throughout the image. The pixel inten- relaxation is always less than or equal to T1. Often the term sity is proportional to: the number of protons present in T2* is used to take into account the observed variations in the volume represented by the pixel weighted by the T1 relaxation time owing to inhomogeneities in the tissue being and T2 relaxation times. Different sequences of rf pulses will imaged and in the applied magnetic field. The web site, produce images that mainly reflect one of these variables, and http://ej. Operationally, the initial step in spatial Diffusion and Magnetic Resonance). Of relevance to this localization is localization of the rf excitation to a region of description, Pfefferbaum and colleagues (3) found T2 relax- space (slice) by the slice selection gradient. When images ation times were longer in schizophrenic patients than in are viewed, the slice selection direction is always perpendicu- controls in both gray and white matter, suggesting possible lar to the surface. A second spatial direction is determined differences in fundamental tissue organization in schizo- by a phase encoding gradient, which differentially alters the phrenia. In MRI the signal is always detected in the presence which has also been the major focus of empirical studies. The readout gradient detects differ- WHAT ARE THE DESIRABLE FEATURES OF A ences arising from both the slice selection gradient and the STRUCTURAL MRI STUDY? Smaller units of volume analysis Pulse Sequences (called voxels, for volume element) allow for more precise determination of the irregular contours of brain regions, Appendix A describes commonly used pulse sequences in by reducing the voxel mixing of the desired region with terms of our knowledge about the relaxation processes for neighboring structures in the voxel. This mixing is called the reader wishing insight into the terminology and ration- partial voluming. Many earlier studies used MRI acquisi- ale of pulse sequences. Thus studies with thinner slices ABOUT SCHIZOPHRENIA? In 1984 Smith and co-workers (4) performed the first MRI 2.