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By H. Thorus. Wingate University. 2019.

Entecavir treatment for chronic hepatitis B: adaptation is not noma in hepatitis B viral cirrhotic patients: comparison between needed for the majority of naive patients with a partial virological response buy discount avodart 0.5mg online. Thabut D buy avodart with paypal, Thibault V buy discount avodart 0.5 mg, Bernard-Chabert B, Mouquet C, Di Martino Med J Aust 2009;190:489-492. Salpini R, Alteri C, Cento V, Pollicita M, Micheli V, Gubertini G, Prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B: an observational study. Snapshot on drug-resistance rate and profiles in patients with Ann Intern Med 2014;160:828-835. Lower newborn bone mineral content associated with rhosis in inactive carriers of hepatitis B virus. Am J Gastroenterol maternal use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate during pregnancy. The Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry Interim Report for 1 January 1989 analysis of lamivudine for interruption of mother-to-child transmis- through 31 January 2015. Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infec- women in Botswana receiving antiretroviral treatment. J Infect Dis tion in the United States: patient selection and therapeutic options. Randomized controlled trial of entecavir versus placebo in chil- mother 2009;53:1170-1176. Mirochnick M, Taha T, Kreitchmann R, Nielsen-Saines K, Gastroenterology 2010;138:1357-1364. Effect of elective cesarean section on the risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepati- Additional Supporting Information may be found at tis B virus. Department of Health and Human Services iiii Acknowledgments Contents iii iii The National Institute on Drug Abuse wishes to thank the following individuals for reviewing this publication. Medical University of South Carolina University of New Mexico 7 Frequently Asked Questions Greg Brigham, Ph. University of Kentucky New York University Langone Medical Center 12 Is drug addiction treatment worth its cost? Bowman Gray School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania 15 How do we get more substance- Reese T. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in 21 What are the unique needs of pregnant this publication are used only because they are considered essential in the context of the studies described. This update of the National Institute on 24 Is there a difference between physical Drug Abuse’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment is dependence and addiction? It is designed to serve as a resource for healthcare drug addiction affect drug addiction treatment? Addiction affects multiple brain circuits, including those involved in reward and motivation, learning and 27 Where do 12-step or self-help programs memory, and inhibitory control over behavior. Some individuals are more vulnerable than others to becoming addicted, 28 Can exercise play a role in the treatment process? For example, drug abuse and addiction 39 Evidence-Based Approaches to increase a person’s risk for a variety of other mental and Drug Addiction Treatment physical illnesses related to a drug-abusing lifestyle or the toxic effects of the drugs themselves. Additionally, the 39 Pharmacotherapies dysfunctional behaviors that result from drug abuse can interfere with a person’s normal functioning in the family, 48 Behavioral Therapies the workplace, and the broader community. Effective treatment programs vi 1 Nearly four decades of scientific research and clinical practice typically incorporate many components, each directed have yielded a variety of effective to a particular aspect of the illness and its consequences. Addiction treatment must help the individual stop approaches to drug addiction treatment. Because addiction is a disease, most people cannot simply stop using drugs for a few days and be cured. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse Principles of Effective 22 Treatment 33 1. Recovery from drug addiction is a long- and function, resulting in changes that persist long after term process and frequently requires multiple episodes of drug use has ceased. As with other chronic illnesses, relapses to drug are at risk for relapse even after long periods of abstinence abuse can occur and should signal a need for treatment to and despite the potentially devastating consequences. Because individuals often leave treatment prematurely, programs should include strategies 2. Treatment varies depending on the type of drug and the characteristics of the patients. Behavioral therapies—including Matching treatment settings, interventions, and services individual, family, or group counseling— to an individual’s particular problems and needs is critical are the most commonly used forms of to his or her ultimate success in returning to productive drug abuse treatment. Potential patients can be lost if treatment is not therapy and other peer support programs during and immediately available or readily accessible. For example, needs of the individual, not just his methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone (including or her drug abuse. To be effective, treatment a new long-acting formulation) are effective in helping must address the individual’s drug abuse and any individuals addicted to heroin or other opioids stabilize associated medical, psychological, social, vocational, their lives and reduce their illicit drug use. Remaining in treatment for an adequate as patches, gum, lozenges, or nasal spray) or an oral period of time is critical. The appropriate medication (such as bupropion or varenicline) can be duration for an individual depends on the type and degree an effective component of treatment when part of a of the patient’s problems and needs. Treatment does not need to be plan must be assessed continually and voluntary to be effective. Sanctions or modified as necessary to ensure that enticements from family, employment settings, and/or the it meets his or her changing needs. Drug use during treatment must be patient may require medication, medical services, family monitored continuously, as lapses therapy, parenting instruction, vocational rehabilitation, during treatment do occur. For many patients, a drug use is being monitored can be a powerful incentive continuing care approach provides the best results, with for patients and can help them withstand urges to use the treatment intensity varying according to a person’s drugs. Many drug-addicted individuals also individual’s treatment plan to better meet his or her needs. And when these problems co-occur, as provide targeted risk-reduction treatment should address both (or all), including the use of counseling, linking patients to medications as appropriate. Medically assisted detoxification treatment addresses some of the drug-related behaviors is only the first stage of addiction that put people at risk of infectious diseases. Targeted treatment and by itself does little to counseling focused on reducing infectious disease risk change long-term drug abuse. Counseling can acute physical symptoms of withdrawal and can, for also help those who are already infected to manage their some, pave the way for effective long-term addiction illness. Frequently Asked 6 Treatment varies depending on the Questions 7 type of drug and the characteristics of the patient. Although some people are successful, many attempts result in failure to achieve long- term abstinence.

As central nervous system depressants discount avodart 0.5mg without a prescription, the threshold at which the drugs’ desired effects can become dangerous discount avodart generic, potentially leading to uncon- sciousness generic avodart 0.5mg line, coma or death, is often relatively small. A particular risk is presented when depressant drugs are used in combination—most commonly alcohol in combination with prescription or illicit depressants. Secondly, they have a relatively high potential for dependent patterns of use to develop. Depressants can all produce potentially powerful physi- ological withdrawal effects (with barbiturates, for example, sometimes even fatal) and cravings, as well as development of tolerance. The psycho- social component of dependence can also be profound—particularly in the context of their use as self-medication, or escapism. Key amongst these are: * Naturally occurring opiates in the opium poppy; morphine, 103 codeine and thebaine—in combination in the poppy resin as 104 opium or in an opium tincture with alcohol as laudanum. These refect the varied histories of availability of the range of opiates over the past two centuries, localised opiate cultures that have formed around this availability, and the wider social, economic and cultural contexts alluded to above. Trying to devise effective policy responses to the issues around opiate use requires the grouping being viewed as a whole; there is clearly a high degree of displacement possible between opiates with similar effects, or different preparations and methods of using the same opiates. To a lesser extent other depressant drugs, and drug use more broadly, should be considered in this context. Short and long term efforts should work together to help shift use from more to less risky products (both drug and preparation), using environments, and using behaviours. Taken together, they should reduce opiate dependency, and achieve longer term reductions in demand by removing obstacles to addressing the wider social policy concerns that underlie problematic use of opiates and other drugs. As mentioned in chapter 2 (and Appendix 2), almost half of global opium production is for legal medical pharmaceutical production. Particular care must be taken to avoid a key current problem; fear of encouraging illicit or non-medical recreational use of opiates has often restricted access for essential medical purposes, including palliative care and wider pain relief. As alluded to in chapter 2, pragmatic approaches will start with an explo- ration of the potential for creating a clear harm reduction gradient. This will demand the differential application of regulation, along key risk vectors. It is proposed this could involve a tiered regulatory system: * Some highly potent, short-acting synthetic or semi-synthetic 159 1 2 3 Introduction Five models for regulating drug supply The practical detail of regulation opiates, such as fentanyl (and its various analogues), would remain prohibited under all circumstances for non-medical supply and use. Whilst many of these drugs have occasionally appeared within opiate using populations (usually as diverted medical supplies) such use is primarily a refection of the lack of access to alternatives. If greater access to and choice of other opiates were available, it is assumed that the demand for more niche medical opiates would largely disappear. These would be available on a medical prescription basis, where specifc criteria were met. Opiate prescribing models have a long history in a number of countries and are well established. As discussed in chapter 2, various models exist that can include access that is condi- tional on supervised use in a clinical setting. These would potentially be in combination with licensed premises for supply and consumption, or membership based clubs/venues. Specifc levels of regulation for particular products would be determined by risk assessment of individual prepa- rations. These would be combined with an assessment of local demand, patterns of use and risk behaviours. Some more potent/risky products would not be available, and would remain restricted for medical use only. Some non-injectable pharmaceu- tical opiates (including methadone) would also be available on prescription under certain circumstances. These could be subject to tighter restrictions including, for example, a requirement for supervised consumption. The aim of making opium subject to less restrictive availability controls, would be to reverse the trend towards more concentrated opiate products that has unfolded over the last century of prohibition. Lower risk opium preparations could absorb an increasingly large share of the demand for opiates currently met from illicit sales and diverted medical supplies of higher risk opiates. Availability for consumption in regulated venues would allow for a range of controls, peer support, risk reduction and targeting of public health information and services. It is notable that whilst the conventions draw very strict lines in terms of movement in one direction along the policy continuum, few barriers or parameters exist for movement in the opposite direction, towards increasing strictness, although the 1988 convention notes that this is ‘subject always’ to human rights law. This is in stark contrast to its frequent and vocal protestations at even the most minor shifts in the opposite direction. The challenge: allowing increased fexibility without undermining the whole system. The challenge in reforming the international drug control infrastructure is to institute reforms that remove the barriers to individual or groups of states exploring models for the legal regulation and supply of some currently illicit drugs, without destroying the entire international drug control infrastructure, much of which is unquestionably benefcial. The system of control and regulation of the pharmaceutical trade is vitally important. The consensus and shared purpose that the conventions represent—behind the need to address the problems associated with drugs—holds great potential to develop and implement more effective responses at an international level, guided by the principles and norms of the United Nations. These are the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 Convention against Illicit 108 R. As of March 2008, 183 states reconsidered’ and recommended are parties to all three conventions. The thirteen countries involved all sought to curb the opium trade (albeit for a range of different cultural, geo-political and economic reasons). The Hague convention that emerged in 1912 established the model for international drug control that continues to this day, binding parties to limit production, supply and use of opium to medical contexts, coor- dinate international efforts to enforce restrictions on non-medical use including closure of ‘opium dens’, and specifcally to penalise unauthor- ised possession. It is interesting to note that drug control demonstrates a reversed evolutionary pattern of development to much of contempo- rary social, criminal or public health policy, in that it actually began with a top-down international approach that was then consolidated into 112 domestic policy and law at a later stage. The 1961 Convention outlines the same prohibitionist principles as its forerunner, but for a far broader spectrum of drugs, and also involving a substantially greater number of state parties. Refecting the prevalent concerns of the era (bearing in mind that the main text of the convention was drafted in the 1950s, some of it as far 113 back as the 1940s ), the Convention pays particular attention to plant based drugs: opium, coca, and cannabis (along with derived drugs heroin and cocaine). In fact more than one hundred illicit substances are placed in four schedules, nominally based on the perceived harm- fulness (specifcally addictiveness) of the drug as was understood 114 at the time. Notably the Universal Declaration of Human Rights drafting period (1946–48) overlapped the Single Convention drafting to some extent, and had been in place for thirteen years by its enactment. It does not appear to have infuenced the Single Convention’s negotia- tions, the absence of any reference to the Universal Declaration in the Single Convention’s preamble being particularly conspicuous. Article 2 of the Single Convention determines that the supply or dispensing of any scheduled substance is only possible under legal authority, namely under licence. This includes some substances from Schedule I, when they are considered to have particularly dangerous properties which are not offset by thera- peutic value that cannot be afforded by some other drug. It is the self-described ‘independent and quasi-judicial monitoring body for the implementation of the United Nations international drug control 115 conventions’.

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Below is a comprehensive list of fnancial disclosures which may confict with the contributors’ role in the development of this guide purchase cheapest avodart. Research Support: Eli Lilly and Company buy generic avodart 0.5mg online; Consultant: Eli Lilly and Company buy avodart; McNeil; Shire Pharmaceuticals Inc. Company; Medicure; Janssen, Division of Board Member, American Psychiatric Asso- Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, ciation; Mental Health America, Child and Inc. Bristol-Myers Squibb; Otsuka America Consultant: Forest Pharmaceutical; Pharmaceutical, Inc. Health and Human Development; Consultant: The Resource for Advancing National Institute of Mental Health; Children’s Health Institute (Scientifc Stanley Foundation Steering Committee Member and Faculty); Other: Forest Pharmaceutical; Editor American Psychiatric Association/Shire (Current Psychiatry) Child Psychiatry Fellowship (Chair of Selection Committee) R. Books, Intellectual Property: Palladian Advisory Board: Bristol-Myers Squibb; Partners Government Contractor; Eli Lilly and Company; Otsuka American Psychiatric Association; America Pharmaceutical, Inc. No Disclosures The information contained in this guide is not intended as, and is not a substitute for, professional medical ParentsMedGuide. National trends in the outpatient diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth. Accessed on 6/24/08 The information contained in this guide is not intended as, and is not a substitute for, professional medical ParentsMedGuide. Presented at the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, May 1-3, 2008, Washington, D. Lower risk for tardive dyskinesia associated with second-generation antipsychotics: a systematic review of 1-year studies. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Mental Health Facts: Bipolar Children. Department of Health and Human Services, Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, 1999. Department of Education, Free Appropriate Public Education for Students With Disabilities: Requirements Under Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Department of Health and Human Services, Your Rights Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Sutton is a 35-year-old man who presented to his primary care provider with a sore throat and fatigue. He was diagnosed with acute pharyngitis and started on ampicillin for empiric treatment. Within a few days of his treatment he presented to urgent care with a new rash that began on his trunk and has spread to his extremities. All of the above 9 Case One, Question 1 Answer: e What else would you like to know about Mr. If the primary care provider ordered a test for mononucleosis (Ampicillin in the setting of acute mononucelosis often causes a characteristic rash) d. Past medical history (Risk factors for adverse drug reactions include certain disease states and previous history of drug eruptions) e. Vasculitis 17 Exanthematous Drug Eruption Exanthematous eruptions are the most common of all cutaneous drug eruptions (~90%) Limited to the skin Lesions initially appear on the trunk and spread centrifugally to the extremities in a symmetric fashion Erythematous macules and infiltrated papules Pruritus and mild fever may be present Skin lesions usually appear more than 2 days after the drug has been started, mainly around day 8-11, and occasionally persists several days after having stopped the drug 18 Examples of Exanthematous Drug Eruptions 19 Clinical Course and Treatment Resolves in a few days to a week after the medication is stopped May continue the medication safely if the eruption is not too severe and the medication cannot be substituted Resolves without sequelae (though extensive scaling/desquamation can occur) Treatment consists of topical steroids, oral antihistamines, and reassurance 20 Case Two Ms. Hernandez is a 26-year-old woman who was recently diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and prescribed oral metronidazole for treatment. She returned to her primary care provider the following day because she developed a “spot” on her thigh. Erythema migrans (presents as an erythematous macule, which expands to produce an annular lesion with central clearing causing a target-like appearance) c. Spider bite (generally more necrotic and painful, though these can be difficult to exclude and are frequently misdiagnosed) e. Three weeks after starting therapy, he began to feel unwell with fever and malaise. He was brought to the emergency room by his mother when a generalized rash appeared. Vasculitis 34 Case Three, Question 1 Answer: a Based on the history and clinical findings, which of the following drug reactions do you suspect? Holloway is a 29-year-old woman who presented to the local emergency room with a painful, expanding, and “sloughing” rash. All of the above 47 Case Four, Question 1 Answer: d What is the next best step in management? Consult dermatology (when there is concern for severe skin involvement dermatology should be consulted) b. This version of the manuscript will be replaced with the final, published version after it has been published in the print edition of the journal. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical decision- making for specific clinical conditions. These guidelines are a working document reflecting the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes in this area are expected, periodic revisions are inevitable. We encourage medical professionals to use this information in conjunction with their best clinical judgment. Each recommendation is based on a diligent review of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers with 160 specific statements (85 [53. The thrust of the final recommendations is to recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision-making that addresses the multiple aspects of real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientifically based approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. Adipose tissue itself is an endocrine organ which can become dysfunctional in obesity and contribute to systemic metabolic disease. Weight loss can be used to prevent and treat metabolic disease concomitant with improvements in adipose tissue functionality. These new therapeutic tools and scientific advances necessitate development of rational medical care models and robust evidenced-based therapeutic approaches, with the intended goal of improving patient well-being and recognizing patients as individuals with unique phenotypes in unique settings. These developments have the potential to accelerate scientific study of the multidimensional pathophysiology of obesity and also present an impetus to our health care system to provide effective treatment and prevention. The conference convened a wide array of national stakeholders (the “pillars”) with a vested interest in obesity. The concerted participation of these stakeholders was recognized as necessary to support an effective overall action plan, and they included health professional organizations, government regulatory agencies, employers, health care insurers, pharmaceutical industry representatives, research organizations, disease advocacy organizations, and health profession educators. Thus, the main endpoint of therapy is to measurably improve patient health and quality of life.

Such legal access will ensure that users do not have to commit crimes against others order 0.5mg avodart, or prostitute themselves cheap avodart amex, as a means of obtaining it generic avodart 0.5 mg mastercard. Given this, it would seem that future approaches should start with the proposition that there is no beneft in further criminalising and demo- nising crack users. Instead, a concerted public health-led response, combined with appropriate social support, would seem to be a more productive response to a so far intractable issue. Whilst regulation has an important role to play in reducing harm, it is clear that addressing the social conditions and low levels of wellbeing that underlie most problematic use of crack, and other drugs, is the key to reducing such harmful behaviours in the longer term. While even the most chaotic heroin users will respond to regular prescriptions that satisfy their needs, crack users will often binge frequently and uncontrollably. While heroin users may accept substitute prescriptions such as methadone, no such alternatives for crack exist. Research continues into a range of possibilities, including prescrip- 69 tion of substitute stimulants such as amphetamines and Modafnil, or 70 use of less potent cocaine preparations. This is clearly an area of research that requires substantially more attention and investment. The need for such research is becoming increasingly urgent as the growing concurrent use of crack and heroin makes managing crack related issues more and more diffcult. Arguably, this development in crack usage is another unintended consequence of prohibition. It has been driven by the supply infrastructure and underground culture that has grown up around the illicit opiate market—a market and a culture that legalisation and consequent regulation would actively and directly help dismantle. Crack could of course be prohibited, but regulation frameworks should also acknowledge that if powder cocaine is available—either legally or illicitly on sale, or on prescription—then crack is effectively available too. Making crack from powder cocaine is a simple kitchen procedure, and one that is impossible to prevent. Even if crack were not directly available, determined users previously willing to enter a dirty and dangerous illegal market to procure it would clearly not lack the moti- vation to manufacture it from a legal powder cocaine supply. More positively, basic crack harm reduction methods are becoming reasonably well established. For example, Vancouver is one of a number of locations that distributes crack harm reduction kits, and some tenta- tive experiments have also begun with supervised consumption venues 71 for crack use. These interventions point towards a model in which, 69 A useful summary: Kampman, ‘The search for medications to treat stimulant dependence’, Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, 4(2), 2008, pages 28–35. This kind of legally accessible cocaine powder/supervised crack consumption venue model creates clear potential for reductions in the personal and social harms created by the current illicit crack market. These reductions are of suffcient magnitude to outweigh the poten- tial increase in health harms that might result for some users from a lowering of the cost availability barrier that constrains crack use for lower income chaotic users. It is also worth noting that, even for the most chaotic of those users, crack use is not infnite. There are also clear lessons to be learned from historic provision of heroin and other opiate prescribing and harm reduction services such as supervised injecting venues. Lessons from these experiences suggest that engaging directly and constructively with problem users’ immediate needs, through harm reduction or other service provision, has a very clearly defned positive impact. In particular, it increases the likelihood that they will not only use drugs more safely and moder- ately, and do so in a safer peer environment, but that they will also come into contact with, and be more likely to utilise the wider service provisions on offer. Prohibition creates unregulated markets, driven by very clearly defned economic 72 processes. One effect of these is to encourage the creation and use of more potent drugs or concentrated drug preparations, which are more proftable per unit weight. This is directly comparable to the way that, under alcohol prohibition, the trade in beer and wines gave way to sales of more concentrated, proftable and dangerous spirits. For example, in opiate marketplaces, opium (either smoked or served in drinkable form) has been replaced by injectable heroin. More recently, the illegal cannabis market has become increas- ingly saturated with more potent indoor-grown varieties. Before its prohibition, the most popular forms of cocaine use were low-risk coca leaf chewing and coca-based tea and wine drinks. Snorted cocaine powder was frst introduced onto the streets as a result of the demands of prohibition created illicit markets. These same market pressures fnally led to the development and emergence of high-risk smokable crack. It is notable that the market for cocaine (outside of the Andean regions) is currently defned by the fact that only the strongest and most risky forms of the drug are available. This is especially the case if the regulatory gradients described in chapter 3, page 39, were applied with this specifc aim. The heroin and crack markets have meshed within a comparatively short period—most crack users are also heroin users. If these illegal networks were dismantled through the introduc- tion of regulated supply, the next new drug ‘epidemic’ would be far less likely to take hold. Price controls > Fixed unit prices or minimum/maximum prices could be specifed—with taxation potentially included on a per unit weight or % basis. Summary information and prominent warnings on containers and sachets would be augmented by a more detailed printed information insert in the container. Advertising/promotion > Total ban on all advertising and promotion—including strict controls on appearance/ signage of outlets. Volume sales/rationing controls > There would need to be a realistic acceptance that some degree of sharing would take place in social settings, even if sales are volume limited for personal use only. Volume of sales per purchaser (per day/week/month) would correspondingly have an upper limit established (and/or escalating price/volume structure). Licences for purchasers/users > In the frst instance at least (certainly for pilot schemes) a system would be established under which only licensed individuals would be allowed access for personal use only. Limitations in allowed locations for consumption > Public consumption would be a fneable offence in most locations. Potential models for regulation of lower strength cocaine preparations As already highlighted, coca tea has a usage and public health profile in the Andean regions not dissimilar to that of coffee and conventional tea in much of the rest of the world. There is no reason why it could not be made more widely available on a similar basis, 74 for those who desire it. Its use in the short to medium term would be likely to remain largely within its cultural homeland. On an international level, it would probably find most market share in the speciality tea market. There is no particular reason to think it would replace or seriously encroach on coffee and tea markets where they are established. They might also compete in the substantial, and rapidly growing higher caffeine content ‘energy drinks’ market, sharing shelf space with products like Red Bull. Whilst coca tea has a natural limit to its active content, processed beverages would not. They would therefore have to be subject to additional tiers of regulation, so that active content could be controlled and limited, appropriate information incorporated into labelling and packaging, and other appropriate controls with regards to advertising/promotions established. Such drinks would presumably (depending on active content levels and related risk assessments) be made available under a licensed sales model similar to that governing alcohol sales.

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