By E. Tuwas. Emerson College.
The catatonic subgroup is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation or excessive purposeless activity cheap 400 mg skelaxin mastercard, withdrawal discount 400 mg skelaxin overnight delivery, and buy generic skelaxin pills, in some patients, grimacing and mimicry of speech (echolalia) or movement (echopraxia). The melancholic subgroup is characterized by loss of pleasure in nearly all activities, inability to respond to pleasurable stimuli, unchanging emotional expression, excessive or inappropriate guilt, early morning awakening, marked psychomotor retardation or agitation, and significant anorexia or weight loss. The atypical subgroup is characterized by a brightened mood in response to positive events and rejection sensitivity, resulting in depressed overreaction to perceived criticism or rejection, feelings of leaden paralysis or anergy, weight gain or increased appetite, and hypersomnia. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either: (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood. Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gains. The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e. The symptoms are not better accounted for by bereavement, i. Researchers have discovered a strong genetic predisposition to major depression, where the illness can run in families with a history of depression. As with many mental illnesses, scientists believe a combination of genetics, biology, environmental and psychological factors play a role in the development of major depressive disorder. Life events, such as the death of a loved one, a major loss or change, chronic stress, and alcohol and drug abuse, may trigger episodes of depression. People who are introverted and who have anxious tendencies may be more likely to develop a depressive disorder. Such people often lack the social skills to adjust to life pressures. Depression may also develop in people with other psychological disorders. Some illnesses such as heart disease and cancer and some medications may also trigger depressive episodes. It is also important to note that many depressive episodes occur spontaneously and are not triggered by a life crisis, physical illness, or other risk factors. For comprehensive information on major depression (clinical depression) and other forms of depression, visit the Depression Community. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Merck Manual, Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers, last revised 2006. National Institute of Mental Health website, "About Depression. Definition, signs, symptoms, causes of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is one of the anxiety disorders. It affects 2-3% of the population, usually begins in adolescence or young adulthood and occurs in men and women equally. OCD is characterized by recurrent intense unwanted and obtrusive obsessions and/or compulsions that cause severe discomfort and interfere with day-to-day functioning. Frequently, they are unrealistic or irrational and may even seem silly, weird, nasty, or horrible to the person experiencing them. They are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems or preoccupations. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or rituals (like hand washing, hoarding, keeping things in order, checking something over and over) or mental acts (like counting, repeating words silently, avoiding). Most people with OCD are aware that their obsessive thoughts do not reflect actual risks and that their compulsive behaviors are ineffective. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, therefore, differs from psychotic disorders, in which people lose contact with reality. Obsessive-compulsive disorder also differs from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in which specific personality traits are defined (for example, being a perfectionist). People with obsessive-compulsive disorder are aware that their compulsive behaviors are excessive to the point of being bizarre, and they are afraid they will be embarrassed, shamed or stigmatized. Thus, they often perform their rituals secretly, even though the rituals may occupy several hours each day. There has been a lot of research into the causes of OCD and as with many psychiatric disorders, genetics, brain chemistry, environment and biology probably play a significant role in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Some research suggests that an antibody against strep throat bacteria sometimes mistakenly acts like a brain enzyme. This disrupts communication between neurons in the brain and may trigger OCD. For comprehensive information on obsessive-compulsive and other types of anxiety disorders, visit the Anxiety-Panic Community. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Merck Manual, Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers, last revised 2006. Full description of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). Definition, signs, symptoms, causes of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. About 16 million Americans, or 8-percent of the population have Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, making it one of the most prevalent personality disorders in the U. Rigid adherence to rules and regulations and an overwhelming need for order and personal control are the primary characteristics of obsessive compulsive personality disorder. People living with OCPD are inflexible, perfectionists and unwilling to yield responsibilities to others. They are reliable, dependable, orderly, and methodical, but their inflexibility makes them unable to adapt to change. Because they are cautious and weigh all aspects of a problem, they have difficulty making decisions. According to the Merck Manual, "people with an obsessive-compulsive personality are often high achievers, especially in the sciences and other intellectually demanding fields that require order and attention to detail. However, their responsibilities make them so anxious that they can rarely enjoy their successes. Many people confuse Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). People with OCD are often aware that their obsessions are abnormal, but are compelled to perform them anyway.
The other agent may be discontinued abruptly and chlorpropamide started at once order skelaxin with a visa. In prescribing chlorpropamide skelaxin 400mg otc, due consideration must be given to its greater potency buy genuine skelaxin on-line. Many mild to moderately severe, middle-aged, stable type 2 diabetes patients receiving insulin can be placed directly on the oral drug and their insulin abruptly discontinued. For patients requiring more than 40 units of insulin daily, therapy with Diabinese may be initiated with a 50 per cent reduction in insulin for the first few days, with subsequent further reductions dependent upon the response. During the initial period of therapy with chlorpropamide, hypoglycemic reactions may occasionally occur, particularly during the transition from insulin to the oral drug. Hypoglycemia within 24 hours after withdrawal of the intermediate or long-acting types of insulin will usually prove to be the result of insulin carry-over and not primarily due to the effect of chlorpropamide. During the insulin withdrawal period, the patient should self-monitor glucose levels at least three times daily. If they are abnormal, the physician should be notified immediately. In some cases, it may be advisable to consider hospitalization during the transition period. Five to seven days after the initial therapy, the blood level of chlorpropamide reaches a plateau. Dosage may subsequently be adjusted upward or downward by increments of not more than 50 to l25 mg at intervals of three to five days to obtain optimal control. Most moderately severe, middle-aged, stable type 2 diabetes patients are controlled by approximately 250 mg daily. Many investigators have found that some milder diabetics do well on daily doses of 100 mg or less. Many of the more severe diabetics may require 500 mg daily for adequate control. PATIENTS WHO DO NOT RESPOND COMPLETELY TO 500 MG DAILY WILL USUALLY NOT RESPOND TO HIGHER DOSES. MAINTENANCE DOSES ABOVE 750 mg DAILY SHOULD BE AVOIDED. Diabinese (chlorpropamide) 100 mgDiabinese (chlorpropamide) 250 mgRECOMMENDED STORAGE: Store below 86?F (30?C). Generic name: ChlorpropamideDiabinese is an oral antidiabetic medication used to treat type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce enough insulin or is unable to use it properly. Insulin is believed to work by helping sugar penetrate the cell wall so it can be used by the cell. There are two forms of diabetes: type 1 insulin-dependent and type 2 non-insulin-dependent. Type 1 usually requires insulin injection for life, while type 2 diabetes can usually be treated by dietary changes and oral antidiabetic medications such as Diabinese. Apparently, Diabinese controls diabetes by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin. Occasionally, type 2 diabetics must take insulin injections on a temporary basis, especially during stressful periods or times of illness. Always remember that Diabinese is an aid to, not a substitute for, good diet and exercise. Failure to follow a sound diet and exercise plan can lead to serious complications, such as dangerously high or low blood sugar levels. Remember, too, that Diabinese is not an oral form of insulin, and cannot be used in place of insulin. Ordinarily, your doctor will ask you to take a single daily dose of Diabinese each morning with breakfast. However, if this upsets your stomach, he or she may ask you to take Diabinese in smaller doses throughout the day. To prevent low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia):You should understand the symptoms of hypoglycemiaKnow how exercise affects your blood sugar levelsMaintain an adequate dietKeep a source of quick-acting sugar with you all the timeSide effects cannot be anticipated. If any develop or change in intensity, inform your doctor as soon as possible. Only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking Diabinese. Side effects from Diabinese are rare and seldom require discontinuation of the medication. More common side effects include:Diarrhea, hunger, itching, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach upset, vomitingDiabinese, like all oral antidiabetics, can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). The risk of hypoglycemia is increased by missed meals, alcohol, other medications, and excessive exercise. To avoid hypoglycemia, closely follow the dietary and exercise regimen suggested by your physician. Cold sweat, drowsiness, fast heartbeat, headache, nausea, nervousnessSymptoms of more severe hypoglycemia may include:Coma, pale skin, seizures, shallow breathingContact your doctor immediately if these symptoms of severe low blood sugar occur. You should not take Diabinese if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it. Do not take Diabinese if you are suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis (a life-threatening medical emergency caused by insufficient insulin and marked by excessive thirst, nausea, fatigue, pain below the breastbone, and a fruity breath). If you have a heart condition, you may want to discuss this with your doctor. If you are taking Diabinese, you should check your blood and urine periodically for the presence of abnormal sugar levels. Remember that it is important that you closely follow the diet and exercise regimen established by your doctor. Even people with well-controlled diabetes may find that stress, illness, surgery, or fever results in a loss of control. If this happens, your doctor may recommend that Diabinese be discontinued temporarily and insulin used instead. In addition, the effectiveness of any oral antidiabetic, including Diabinese, may decrease with time. This may occur because of either a diminished responsiveness to the medication or a worsening of the diabetes. When you take Diabinese with certain other drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. It is important that you consult with your doctor before taking Diabinese with the following:Barbiturates such as secobarbitalBeta-blocking blood pressure medications such as atenolol and propranololCalcium-blocking blood pressure medications such as diltiazem and nifedipineDiuretics such as hydrochlorothiazideMajor tranquilizers such as chlorpromazine and thioridazineMAO inhibitor-type antidepressants such as phenelzine and tranylcypromineNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as ibuprofen and naproxenSteroids such as prednisoneSulfa drugs such as sulfamethoxazoleAvoid alcohol since excessive alcohol consumption can cause low blood sugar, breathlessness, and facial flushing. The effects of Diabinese during pregnancy have not been adequately established.