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An immune response can be induced against a previously ignored self antigen that does not normally enter lymphoid tissues if its entry is induced by cir- cumstance buy 250mg ceftin visa, for instance buy discount ceftin, because of cell destruction resulting from chronic peripheral infection purchase ceftin cheap online. It is important to remember that induction of a small number of T cells will not suffice to provide immune protection against a pathogen. This can be better understood by examining how the individual com- ponents of the immune response function. The human immunological system can be conceived as a widely dis- tributed organ comprising approximately 1012 individual cells, mainly lym- phocytes, with a total weight of approximately 1kg. Leukocytes arise from pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow, then differentiate further as two distinct lineages. The myeloid lineage constitutes granulocytes and mono- cytes, which perform important basic defense functions as phagocytes (“scavenger cells”). The lymphoid lineage gives rise to the effector cells of the specific immune response, T and B lymphocytes. These cells are con- stantly being renewed (about 106 new lymphocytes are produced in every minute) and destroyed in large numbers (see Fig. T and B lym- phocytes, while morphologically similar, undergo distinct maturation pro- Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. The antigen-independent phase of lymphocyte differentiation takes place in the so-called primary lymphoid organs: T lymphocytes mature in the thymus and B lymphocytes in the bursa fabricI (in birds). Although mammals have no bursa, the term B lymphocytes (or B cells) has been retained to distinguish these cells, with their clearly distinct 2 functions and maturation in the bone marrow, from T lymphocytes, which mature in the thymus (Table 2. In addition to their divergent differentia- Maturation of B and T cells Primary (central) lymphoid organs Secondary (peripheral) lymphoid organs Antigen-independent Antigen-dependent Progenitor Precursor B Immature Mature Activated Blast Plasma cell B (pro-B) cell (pre-B) cell B cell IgM B cell B cell IgD B cell µ µ B cells µ λ5/V B λ or κ IgM IgM pre 1,2 IgD IgM Bone marrow αβ αβ Effector T Stem cell ρTα Mature T cells β β (Te) cells T cells αβ Activation in secondary Immature T cells ± selection lymphoid organs (via contact and/ Thymic cortex Thymic medulla or interleukins) Fig. Stem cells that remain in the bone marrow develop into mature B cells via several anti- gen-independent stages; including the k5Vpre-B cell stage, and pre-B cells with a special k5 precursor chain. Antigen contact within secondary lymphoid or- gans can then activate these cells, finally causing them to differentiate into anti- body-secreting plasma cells. From here, these single positive T cells can emigrate to peripheral secondary lymphoid organs, where they may become activated by a combination of antigen contacts, secondary signals, and cytokines. They manifest contrasting response patterns to cyto- kines, and display a marked preference to occupy different compartments of lymphoid organs. The antigen-dependent differentiation processes which leads to T and B cell specialization, takes place within the secondary lym- phoid organs where lymphocytes come into contact with antigens. As a general rule the secondary lymphoid organs contain only mature T and B cells, and comprise encapsulated organs such as the lymph nodes and spleen, or non-encapsulated structures which contain lymphocytes and are associated with the skin, mucosa, gut, or bronchus (i. Together, the primary and secondary lymphoid organs ac- count for approximately 1–2% of body weight. The B-Cell System & B lymphocytes produce antibodies in two forms; a membrane-bound form and a secreted form. Following antigen stimulation, B lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells, which secrete antibodies exhibiting the same antigen specifi- city as the B-cell receptor. This system is characterized as humoral immu- nity, due to this release of receptors into the “humoral” system which constitutes vascular contents and mucous environments. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license 50 2 Basic Principles of Immunology system also contains non-specific defense mechanisms, including the com- plement system (see “Immune response and effector mechanisms,” p. These immunoglobulins comprise a number of classes and subclasses, as well as numerous different specificities, but share a common structure 2 (Fig. The five corresponding im- munoglobulin classes are designated as IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, or IgE, depending on which type of heavy chain they use (Fig. A special characteristic of the immunoglobulin classes IgA and IgM is that these comprise a basic monomeric structure that can be doubled or quintupled (i. The upper half of the figure shows the intact monomer consisting of two L and two H chains. Follow- ing pepsin digestion (right), the Fc portion is fragmented, but the Fab fragments remain held together by disulfide bonds. These consist of the variable domains of the H and L chains, joined covalently by a synthetic linker peptide. IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, and IgE are differentiated by their respective heavy chains (l, d, c, a, e). IgA (a chain) forms dimers held together by the J (joining) chain; the secretory (S) piece facilitates transport of secretory IgA across epithelial cells, and impairs its enzymatic lysis within secre- tions. The B-Cell System 51 Immunoglobulins contain numerous domains, as illustrated by the struc- ture of IgG. In monomeric IgG each domain consists of a protein segment which is approximately 110 amino acids in length. Both light chains possess two such domains, and each heavy chain possesses four or five domains. In this way a high level of sequence variability was revealed to be contained within the N-terminal domain (variable domain, V), whilst such variability was comparably absent within the other domains (constant do- mains, C). In contrast, the heavy chains are roughly 440–550 amino acids in length, and consist of four to five domains. Disulfide bonds link the light chains to the heavy chains and the heavy chains to one another. The binding site—a decisive structure for an epitope reaction—is formed by the combination of variable domains from both chains. Since the two light chains, and the two heavy chains, con- tain identical amino acid sequences (this includes the variable domains), each Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. An area within the antibody consisting of 12–15 amino acids contacts the peptide region contained within the antigen and consisting of approximately 5–800 A˚ 2 (Table 2. Diversity within the Variable Domains of the Immunoglobulins The specificity of an antibody is determined by the amino acid sequence of the variable domains of the H and L chains, and this sequence is unique for each corresponding cell clone. How has nature gone about the task of produ- cing the needed diversityof specific amino acid sequences within a biochemi- cally economical framework? The genetic variety contained within the B-cell population is ensured bya process of continuous diversification of the geneti- cally identical B-cell precursors. Thus the germ line does not contain one gene governing the variable domain, but rather gene segments which each encode fragments of the necessary information. The major factors governing immunoglobulin diversity include: & Multiple V gene segments encoded in the germ lines. In theory, the potential number of unique immunoglobulin structures that could be generated by a combination of these processes exceeds 1012, how- ever, the biologically viable and functional range of immunoglobulin specifi- cities is likely to number closer to 104. The designations for the gene segments in the variable part of the H chain are V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining). The segments designated as l, d, c, a, and e code for the constant region and determine the immunoglobulin class. The V segment occurs in several hun- dred versions, the D segment in over a dozen, and the J segment in several forms. Various different V, D, and J gene segments (for b and d), V and J gene segments (for a and c) are available for the T-cell re- ceptor chains. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license The B-Cell System 55 Rearrangement of the B- and T-Cell Receptor Genes 2 Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license 56 2 Basic Principles of Immunology regions encoding the H chain segments Cl, Cd, Cc, Ca, and Ce, in consecutive order.
Te cutoﬀ varies with the method of assay but if the assay precision at this level is >10% then the should be no lower than 0 cheap ceftin 250 mg on-line. Te concentration corresponding to the lowest of ischemic changes indicates cardiac damage cheap ceftin 500 mg with visa. Te highest value ﬁtting under the area of the troponin concentration is seen over the ﬁrst 6 hours curve for the 95% conﬁdence interval after initial testing ceftin 500 mg for sale. B Persons with unstable angina (angina at rest) who have an elevated TnT or TnI are at eight times greater 32. This consistently increased in persons who exhibit property is being used to identify short-term risk unstable angina? Tree hours later, the myoglobin is (reference range for females is approximately 14 μg/L and the troponin I is 0. Tese results are consistent with skeletal muscle cause an increase in cardiac TnI. Spurious false positives caused by matrix eﬀects Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to recognize health usually revert to normal when the test is repeated on and disease states/Cardiac markers/2 a new sample. A third sample collected 6 hours a result of oxygen deprivation, free radicals are later gives a result of 0. A false-positive result occurred due to matrix This ischemia-modified albumin can be measured interference by its inability to bind cobalt. Te patient has suﬀered cardiac injury with the free cobalt, forming a colored complex. Te patient has had an ischemic episode without The absorbance of the reaction mixture is directly cardiac injury proportional to the ischemia-modified albumin Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to recognize health concentration. Which of the following laboratory tests is a marker muscle during an ischemic episode. Free fatty acid binding protein Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ Cardiac markers/1 5. Which test becomes abnormal in the earliest stage Answers to Questions 37–38 of the acute coronary syndrome? High-sensitivity C-reactive protein formation of a plaque comprised of lipid from dead endothelium that proliferates into the artery lumen. This signals the transition to more lung disease advanced disease in which ischemia to heart muscle B. C B-type natriuretic peptide is a hormone produced by the ventricles in response to increased intracardiac blood volume and hydrostatic pressure. Which statement best describes the clinical utility Answers to Questions 39–43 of plasma homocysteine? B Homocysteine includes the monomeric amino acid cholesterol in plasma as well as the dimers such as homocystine that B. Plasma levels are measured as atherosclerosis and increased risk of thrombosis an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Persons who have an elevated plasma High levels of homocysteine are toxic to vascular homocysteine will also have an increased endothelium and promote inﬂammation and plaque plasma Lp(a) formation. Both utilize four carbon amino acids as substrates from alanine, a three-carbon amino acid, to Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological α–ketoglutarate (2–oxoglutarate), forming pyruvate. Alanine and α–ketoglutarate Both transaminases require P-5‘-P as an intermediate B. Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Aminotransferase/1 42. C Because glutamate is a common product for Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological transaminases, pyruvate (a three-carbon ketoacid) characteristics/Aminotransferase/1 and glutamate would be generated from the transamination reaction between alanine and α–ketoglutarate. Te absorbance at the start of the reaction should to 3 days at 4°C, and should be frozen if kept longer. When P-5‘-P is added, a signiﬁcant increase in procedures/Aminotransferase/2 activity sometimes occurs because some of the 45. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase four-carbon amino acid substrate aspartate. Which condition gives rise to the highest serum Answers to Questions 49–54 level of transaminases? Alcoholic hepatitis but nonhepatic sources can be ruled out by a high direct bilirubin. Select the most sensitive marker for alcoholic liver slightly elevated in obstructive jaundice but is disease. Which enzyme is least useful in diﬀerentiating necrotic from obstructive jaundice? Which of the following statements about the Answers to Questions 55–59 phosphatases is true? B Phosphatases are classiﬁed as either alkaline or acid related compounds depending upon the pH needed for optimum B. The phosphatases hydrolyze a wide range needed for activity of monophosphoric acid esters. Intestinal can be achieved by incubating the serum with neuraminidase prior to electrophoresis. The enzyme Chemistry/Apply principles of special procedures/ reduces the sialic content of the bone isoenzyme, Phosphatases/1 causing it to migrate at a slower rate. The assays may be used immunochemically to monitor bone remodeling by osteoblasts in B. Some diﬀer mainly in carbohydrate content obstruction and cannot be identiﬁed by immunologic methods. It is not increased in diseases of bone or in Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ pregnancy. Hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism slightly increased in osteoporosis but often it is not. Osteoporosis In addition to obstructive jaundice and bone diseases, alkaline phosphatase is a tumor marker. Pancreatic disease procedures/Phosphatases/2 associated with biliary obstruction, such as cancer 64. Citrate and measures the increase in absorbance at 405 nm Chemistry/Apply principles of basic laboratory as p-nitrophenyl phosphate is hydrolyzed to procedures/Phosphatases/2 p-nitrophenol. C The Szasz modification of the Bowers–McComb method measures the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and continuously monitors the formation of p-nitrophenol at 405 nm. In which condition is the measurement of acid acid phosphatase in detecting prostatic cancer. Measuring the prostatic isoenzyme to screen for conﬁned to the investigation of sexual assault. Measuring the enzyme in a vaginal swab extract presence of seminal ﬂuid in the vaginal sample. Te diagnosis of hemolytic anemia Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is used as a D. As a marker for bone regeneration cytochemical marker for hairy-cell leukemia, and Chemistry/Apply knowledge to identify sources of may be measured in serum to identify diseases with error/Phosphatases/3 increased osteoclast activity, particularly malignancies 67. Hydrolyzes second α 1–4 glycosidic linkages of second α 1-4 glycosidic bonds of polyglucans starch, glycogen, and other polyglucans forming maltose.
The key to success lies in the mastery of the technique in nonstressful set- tings before taking the next step discount ceftin 250 mg online. For example purchase 250 mg ceftin free shipping, maybe you’ve practiced the progressive relaxation technique many times purchase ceftin cheap, and you can tighten and loosen your muscles, achieving a state of relaxation in just a few minutes. For example, say you’ve scheduled a speaking engagement for a large event with an audi- ence of several hundred people. You try to maintain that state as you walk up to give your speech, but you panic anyway. Then you could practice relaxation just before giving your talk to a small audience rather than a large group. Relaxing through Your Senses Your path to finding relaxation may lead you through a variety of experi- ences. You have to experiment with various approaches to discover your own relaxation remedy. Sounds to soothe the savage beast Ever since people have populated the planet, they’ve turned to music for comfort. From primitive drums to symphony orchestras, sound elicits emotions — love, excitement, fear — and even relaxation. Music thera- pists work in hospitals, schools, and nursing homes using sounds to soothe. Visit any well-supplied music store or Web site and you’ll find an extensive array of possibilities. Many of these recordings boast of containing specially mixed music for optimal relaxation. Chapter 11: Relaxation: The Five-Minute Solution 191 Only the nose knows for sure Ever walk through a mall and smell freshly baked cinnamon rolls? We suspect that the smell of the delicacies is no accident; rather, we think that the bakers must pump the air up and out from around their ovens into the entire mall ventila- tion system, knowing the powerful effects of aroma. In addition to making you hungry, the cinnamon roll scent may also elicit pleas- ant emotions and memories. Perhaps it takes you back to Sunday mornings when your mother baked fresh rolls or to a pleasant café. If so, the aroma auto- matically brings back memories — no effort required on your part. Manufacturers of deodorants, lotions, powders, hair sprays, and air fresh- eners do the same, and you can explore the ability of aroma to calm your jangled nerves. Aromatherapy makes use of essential oils, which are natural substances extracted from plants. We can’t vouch for these claims, because good studies on their effects are lacking. However, the theory behind aromatherapy isn’t entirely wacky, because our bodies have nerves that transmit messages from the nose into the parts of the brain that control mood, memories, and appetite. If you’re physically sick, please consult a qualified doctor, because aromather- apy isn’t likely to cure you. However, if you want to experiment with various aromas to see if any of them help you relax, go for it. Preliminary studies have suggested that certain aromas may alleviate anxiety and decrease nicotine withdrawal symptoms and headaches. Consider the following aromatherapy scent suggestions, but be sure to shop around because prices can vary substantially. Besides, they smell pretty good, so put a few drops in your warm bath or on your pillow. However, one wonderful way to satisfy the need to be touched and relax at the same time is through a professional massage. Today, people flock to massage thera- pists to reduce stress, to manage pain, and to just plain feel good. This can be relaxing because, in addition to the massage that you get from the force of the water jets, the feel of the warm water that’s forced into the whirlpool and the sound of the water rushing around also has a calming effect. Everybody needs touching In the 1940s, many European babies ended up given regular massages gained more weight in orphanages. A shocking number of these than those who merely received standard orphans failed to grow or interact with others, medical care. Other studies by this research and some appeared to wilt away and die for no group have included normal babies, as well as discernible reason. Babies and children who receive failure to thrive appeared to be due to a lack a massage regularly have lower amounts of of human touch. In other words, the caregivers stress hormones and lower levels of anxiety provided nutrients but not contact. Other benefits that were identified include pain reduction, increased This early finding has been supported by attentiveness, and enhanced immune function. Just give them a moment to play with an idea, and they’re off on another anxiety trip. But the good news is that you can backtrack and rewind your mind to a calmer place. Guided imagery creates a calm place by using your imagination to put yourself into a state of relaxation and peace. For example, you might imagine hearing birds, smelling flowers, feeling a slight breeze, and enjoying the taste of chocolate in the middle of a beautiful meadow. Some people find that breathing exercises or progressive relaxation don’t get them sufficiently relaxed. From the time that she springs out of bed in the morning to the last gripping thought before restless sleep mercifully overtakes her, Shauna thinks. She replays every anxious moment at her job and dwells on each imagined error that she’s made during the day, turning it over and over in her mind. To reduce the stress and anxiety that saturate the scenes in her mind, she decides to seek the services of a counselor. The counselor teaches her several breathing techniques, but Shauna can’t hold back the ava- lanche of anxious images. She tries progressive muscle relaxation, massage, and then music and aromatherapy to no avail. When she tried other relaxation techniques, they failed because anx- ious images still filled her mind. With guided imagery, however, the richness of the peaceful experience pushed aside all other concerns. Letting Your Imagination Roam Some people, thinking of themselves as rather unimaginative, struggle to create pictures in their minds. These people generally feel uncomfortable with their drawing skills and have a hard time recalling the details of events they’ve witnessed. If so, using your imagination to relax and reduce your anxiety may not be the approach for you. Guided imagery encompasses more than the visual sense; it includes smell, taste, touch, and sound. We encourage you to give these exercises a shot, but all people have different strengths and weaknesses, and you may find that one or more of these exer- cises just don’t work for you.
Discuss gaps in research buy cheap ceftin 250mg on line, including specific areas that should be addressed and suggest possible public and private organizational types to perform the research and/or analysis 250 mg ceftin with amex. Where an issue is more strongly associated with a phase we mention the phase or other aspect (e purchase ceftin 250mg with visa. The literature places a great emphasis on studying the prescribing phase of medication management, with 263 of our included studies falling in that phase (Table 18). We feel that more study should be done on the phases of order communication, dispensing, and administering. Reconciliation of medications is vital, especially at the time of transfer to another health care setting, including transfer to and from home and community. Order communication is ripe for more research and development, especially in two-way communication to improve and speed up “perfection” of orders and prescriptions. Frequency of medication management phases studies plus reconciliation and education Phase Frequency Prescribing 263 Order communication 26 Dispensing 17 Administering 39 Monitoring 77 Education 3 Reconciliation/Other 6 Research methods. This same pattern of disparity for the number of studies in the medication management phases exists for the distribution of study methods. Future research using methods appropriate for these complex interventions are needed. We also identified other issues in study methods including inappropriate analyses, labeling of methods, and adjusting data sets in some of the observational studies. Some studies addressing feature preferences tested for 40 or more associations without adjustment. The authors of sections of this report also have commented on incorrect choice of statistical analysis techniques in some studies that could have led to positive findings that are not justified. Studies that include nonphysician clinicians are not focused on the unique needs of the participants. The important issue of nursing workarounds that have developed to deal with systems that match physician but not nursing needs is also inadequately studied. However, the special needs of medication management for children such as age- and weight-based dosing were not adequately pursued. However the needs of the patients and their families to manage medications outside of hospitals and clinics were not studied. Qualitative studies that address pharmacists as well as patient needs and opportunities and important outcomes were also lacking. Hospitals and ambulatory care, but not necessarily specialty clinics, are also well- represented in the studies of this report (Table 22). From the descriptions in the articles we felt that descriptions of the system, including components and implementation issues such as training could have been added but they were not. Health information exchange is defined as the movement of health information across organizations using nationally accepted standards was not studied in any of the documents retrieved. We feel that authors should be encouraged to strive for publication in the peer-reviewed literature rather than trade publications and news magazines. Appendices Another of the challenges in this report to do with retrieval of studies from the bibliographic databases and also for abstraction and combining data, were inconsistencies in the use of terminology. In the pharmaceutical world benefit can be thought of as being “can it work” often under ideal situations (i. Impact, or pragmatic studies, refer to measuring the effect of an intervention in the real world. Trials of this nature are complex, long- term, have large numbers of people/situations being studied, and are done on mature and well- functioning systems. Their location is likely best at those centers in the United States that have established and mature health care systems that have solid support for technology, strong research teams, experience with qualitative and quantitative methods and expertise in collaborative projects that include clinicians, experienced informaticians, and patients and their families. Cost and economics are complex issues and important to many people, groups, organizations, and governments. Well- designed studies with an economic evaluation component included, is the best way to move forward in this area. Many studies have provided cost data, but useful economic data involves far more input. An 446 example of a cost study with data that is limited in its use is by Chisolm and colleagues, who did a before-after study of children with asthma in a children’s hospital. In addition, we identified gaps in research quality centering on research design and analysis. Many of the major endpoints sought were found to show positive and statistically significant improvements, especially those that dealt with process and issues related to use, usability, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. We also identified gaps in the study of the phases of medication, people involved, locations of studies, and research methods. They have found that studies assessing the benefits of the technologies in process and clinical outcomes are far more frequent than those assessing the return on investment. This trend is supported by the considerable evidence presented in the current report; while we include numerous studies assessing process changes and clinical outcomes, the body of evidence on cost- effectiveness is sparse. A number of barriers to measuring return on investment in health technologies exist. Technologies do not result in a direct income stream and the benefits often accrue to organizations other than the ones making the investment as, for example, clinical benefit to patients and financial benefits to payers rather than the hospitals making the 785 investments. Certainly the body of literature looking at return on investment for the various technologies covered in this report, across the various settings, is very limited. We recognize that this framework does not include patients as an element, but we believe that the framework could be applied to the patient perspective and incorporate value propositions for patients where applicable. The required information to make an assessment of benefits is different depending on the stakeholder. The costs incurred by primary care physicians in practice will be different and balanced against different organizational benefits than those incurred in hospitals, and influenced 786 by factors such as practice size, the sophistication of the technology, and others. Similarly, what constitutes benefits to a patient will be different from that of other users. Ideally, such an assessment would be available for each stakeholder using each technology in each setting. This is not often the case so realistically we will broadly look at factors taken into account in making a value assessment and determine what we know and where the gaps lie. The few studies included in our review suggested that some cost savings may exist, which could be substantial over time. The economic information looks more favorable after the technology has been in place for an extended period of time so that the large upfront investment gets spread over time and then do we start to see a return on investment. However, a full economic evaluation requires the comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both costs and consequences, which provides the best information for making a decision to adopt an intervention or not, and very few of these have been rigorously completed in this field. Also, the initial expenditure and ongoing costs were rarely reported and the included cost analyses were based on projections of savings given reported changes in care processes rather than improved clinical outcomes for patients. Gains achieved by reductions in outcomes such as lengths of stay or rehospitalizations have been 716 less successful, though Durieux and colleagues do report a significant decline in hospital length of stay in a review of drug dosing decision support technologies.
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